Colonial Valley Zapotec to English Vocabulary

This Vocabulary contains over 600 words and morphemes commonly found in the documents and some of their variant spellings. There are two main parts: the main dictionary (Zapotec to English) and the English index, which can be used to look up a word in the main section.

If you know what the word might mean, but do not know what the Zapotec word might look like, the index will likely be the most useful place for you to look. Be sure to try looking under synonyms, as well.

If you are trying to figure out what an unidentified Zapotec word might mean, recall that spelling can be quite variable. Here are some tips for finding a Zapotec word in the dictionary:

  • Disregard any accent marks. For example, if you are looking for <quéche> try by looking under <queche>.
  • If you don’t find the word spelled exactly as you found it in the text, trying changing the spelling in ways listed below. For example, if you are looking for <aanna> and do not find it there, try looking under <ana>.
    change to
    double consonants single consonants
    double vowels single vowels
    <ij> <i>
  • Disregard any <h> between two identical vowels. For example, if you are looking for <anachihi> and find nothing there, try looking under <anachi>.
  • Keep in mind that the following letter (sequences) may be used interchangeably. If you expect your word to have one of these letters, try replacing it with the one (or ones) in bold, e.g. if you are looking for <veni> you might also look under <peni> and <beni>.
    • p, b, u, v
    • t, d
    • g, gu, c, q, qu
    • s, z, x, c, ç
    • u, o
    • e, i

sp. var. spelling variant

There are two types of entries. Main entries, like anachi and beni below, and cross references for spelling variants, like anachihi below. Cross-references always contain the headword and the cross reference to the main entry. Main entries minimally contain the headword and the definition. They may optionally contain other elements, such as notes on the composition of the word, a list of spelling variants, and sub-entries of words related to that headword. Below, three entries are broken down and their component parts are numbered. A key to these numbered parts follows directly below the sample entries.

1 headword Each definition starts with a headword.
2 definition The headword is followed by a definition. If there are multiple senses to a word, they are numbered.
3 notes on morphological composition The component parts of a word may be noted. For example anachi is made up of ana ‘now’ and chi ‘day’.
4 spelling variants Some possible spelling variants are listed.
5 cross-reference from a spelling variant Some spelling variants (sp. var.) are listed in the vocabulary with a cross reference to the main headword.
6 sub-entry Some subentries are listed under headwords. These can also be found as headwords with more information.
7 example Some entries have examples. The examples are introduced with a reference to the text from which they come, followed by the Zapotec examples in italics and the English translation in quotes.
8 cross-reference Some entries contain cross-references to other entries.
9 modern cognate with audio Some entries contain cognates with audio. Click on the blue play button to hear a native speaker pronounce the cognate in that modern Valley Zapotec variety. Click on the black arrow to jump to that entry in the corresponding Talking Dictionary.

The modern cognates with audio come from four Talking Dictionaries of modern Valley Zapotec languages. These dictionaries are collaborations with native speakers and were made possible by Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages, K. David Harrison, and Jeremy Fahringer. We owe special thanks to Fahringer for enabling the mechanism whereby Ticha can interact with the Talking Dictionaries. The language varieties are listed below with links to the Talking Dictionaries and the names of the contributing speakers.

San Jerónimo Tlacochahuaya Zapotec

http://www.talkingdictionary.org/tlacochahuaya

Speakers: Moisés García Guzmán, Angélica Guzmán Martínez, Antonio García Cruz, María Mercedes Méndez Morales.

San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec

http://www.talkingdictionary.org/sanlucasquiavini

Speakers: Felipe H. Lopez and Victoria Lopez.

Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec

http://www.talkingdictionary.org/teotitlan

Speakers: Camillo Alavéz Alavéz, Gario Angeles, Manuel Bazan Chávez, Froilán Carreño Gutiérrez, Natalia Carreño Hernandez, Janet Chávez Santiago, Federico Chávez Sosa, Elena García Jimenez, Noel Alejandro García Juárez, Silvia González Ruiz, Ambrocio Gutiérrez, Bibiana Gutiérrez, Zenón Pablo Gutiérrez, Erasto Gutiérrez López, Celso Gutiérrez Montaño, Jorge David Hernández Sosa, Edison Hipólito de los Ángeles, Camelia Lazo Chávez, Teresa Martínez Chavez, Adrián Martínez Mendoza, Leonardo Martínez Sosa, Miguel Ángel Mendoza Bautista, Rocío Mendoza Bazán, Manuel de Jesús Mendoza Chávez, Teresa Manuela Mendoza Ruíz, Miros Laba, Cristina Ruiz, Rosa Ruiz González, Francisco Ruiz Gutiérrez, Mariano Sosa Martinez.

Tlacolula de Matamoros Zapotec

http://www.talkingdictionary.org/tlacolula

Speakers: Roberto Antonio Ruiz, and Josefina Antonio Ruiz.

Lillehaugen, Brook Danielle, George Aaron Broadwell, Michel R. Oudijk, Laurie Allen, May Helena Plumb, and Mike Zarafonetis. 2017. "Colonial Valley Zapotec to English Vocabulary." Ticha: a digital text explorer for Colonial Zapotec, first edition. Online: https://ticha.haverford.edu/en/vocabulary

C

c-sp. var. ofqui-irrealis aspect
cawhere (interrogative)ca-wher

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: cali

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: kali

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: cali

cafivegacaa-five
=ca(emphatic marker)
cachesevencach-seve

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: gats

Hear it in Tlacolula de Matamoros Zapotec: gaz

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: gaz

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: jees

caletwentygalicale-twen

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: jaly

Hear it in Tlacolula de Matamoros Zapotec: gal

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: galy

cani1and2but, howevercani-and
catotwo (B set of numbers)topatwo
cayothree (B set of numbers)chonathreecayo-thre
cayoaone hundredcayo-oneh

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: gaiyua

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: te gayoa

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: tub gayua

cayonasixtycayo-sixt

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: gayong

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: gayon

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: gayon

cayoosp. var. ofgayofive
cechacueotherze-another(pre-QUANT)chacuesomezeechacuee
celi1always2eternalceli-eter
cetobisp. var. ofsetobianother
chachobe located separate (neutral aspect)
chacuesomechac-somecechacueother
chagaone (B set of numbers)tobionechag-onechaga chagaevery one

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: cha

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: txa

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: cha

chaga chagaevery, each, every onechagaone (B set of numbers)
chana1Sir2Lady3Lordchonaachan-prie
chapayoung womanchap-younxinichapadaughter

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: zhyap

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: dxap

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: dxa’ap

chesp. var. ofchiday
chelaand, alsochelaniaandchel-andchelaneand
chelaneandchelaand=newith
chidaychechychi-dayanachitoday

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: dxii

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: zhi

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: chi

chitenchi-ten

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: tsï

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: tsë

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: tsë

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: tsë

chiwhenchiijchi-when

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: chi

chibamiserychib-mise

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: nzhiby

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: rzhiby

chichibeapermission
chiijsp. var. ofchiwhen
chijnio bij tapaanineteen (fifteen and four)chinofifteenbi-and (in complex numbers)tapafourchin-nine

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: tseinyabtap

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: tsïïnn bitap

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: tsomptap

china1job, workQuela-huèni-chijna, quela-huèni-ñaani2position, officechin-work

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: zeiny, zëiny

chinisp. var. ofxinichild
chiniosp. var. ofchinofifteen
chinothirteenchij-thir

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: tsïny

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: tzó’ony

chinofifteenchiniochin-fiftchijnio bij tapaanineteen

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: tseiny

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: tsoni

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: tsïïnn

chiquethenchiq-then

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: chicy

chitafourteenchit-four

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: tsïda

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: tsëda

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: tsëda

chitabonechit-bonechitacuerib

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: zuat

chitacueribchitabonecuesidechit-rib

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: zuat cwe teix

chonathreecayothree (B set of numbers)chon-thre

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: choon

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: txonn

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: chon

chonaasp. var. ofchanaSir, Lord
chysp. var. ofchiday
=cionly, just=cy=si=xi=zici-only
ciani1many, muchcian-many

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: zyeiny

cica1thus, like this2likecica-thuscicanithus

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: zicy

cicanithus, like thiscicathus, likecica-like

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: zicy ni

cicanibut
citobisp. var. ofsetobianother
co-(perfective aspect)gu-
cobinewcobi-new

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: ncweby

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: nacuby

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: nakuy

cobicha1sun2daygobijchaagobychagoobijchagoobychaacobi-sun

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: gubidx

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: wbich

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: gubixh

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: wbwizh

coca1be, exist (perfective stem)2be able to, can (perfective stem)racabe, can
cogujsp. var. ofcoquinoble
cola=plural imperativeArte 071 3.1cǒlacǎcatonǒ Let us be!Vellon 119 2.2xinni xtennia, cola colla; cotazeeni loo Bejuanana Dios, niani cocañeeni, guezalaachini xtenni benni guicha rymy children, cry, call to God our Lord to help and have mercy on this sick person
colanasteal (perfective stem)ribanasteal
cona1offering2sacrifice3tithecónigonagunacona-offe

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: guan

conabull, oxcona-oxpichina conaox, bull

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: guan

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: gu’n

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: gu’ún

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: guan

cónisp. var. ofconaoffering, sacrifice
copaguard
copa bitoosp. var. ofcopapitaopriest, confessor
copabitaosp. var. ofcopapitaopriest, confessor
copapitaopriest, confessor, friarcopa bitoocopabitaogoPa bittobixoce copabitaopriest
coquinoble; lord, ladycogujgoguiquoqui
cotagoeat (perfective stem)ragoeat
cotihit (perfective stem)riquinehit
cotidie, be dead (perfective stem)ratibe deadguela gotideath
çôtieight thousand
cotixepay (perfective stem)riquixepay
cue1side2beside, at the side ofcue-sidechitacuerib

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: cwe

cueplot (of land), fieldcuiquelayolandquinasowed land
cuelayoolot, plot of landcueplot, fieldlayoland
cuisp. var. ofcueplot, field

This dictionary was last updated at Sept. 27, 2017, 7:28 p.m.