Dictionary

This Zapotec to English Vocabulary contains over 500 words and morphemes commonly found in the documents and some of their variant spellings. There are two main parts: the main dictionary (Zapotec to English) and the English index to the main dictionary, which can be used to look up a word in the main section.

When headwords are homographs, they are numbered with subscripted numbers after the headword. In this sample the homographic numbering may be surprising as they take into consideration the entire working vocabulary, not just the sample posted here. Please disregard any apparent inconsistencies in the numbering of homographs.

Looking up a headword

If you know what the word might mean, but do not know what the Zapotec word might look like, the index will likely be the most useful place for you to look. Be sure to try looking under synonyms, as well.

If you are trying to figure out what an unidentified Zapotec word might mean, recall that spelling can be quite variable. Here are some tips for finding a Zapotec word in the dictionary:

Abbreviations used in this dictionary

sp. var. spelling variant

The structure of entries

There are two types of entries. Main entries, like anachi and beni below, and cross references for spelling variants, like anachihi below. Cross-references always contain the headword and the cross reference to the main entry. Main entries minimally contain the headword and the definition. They many optionally contain other elements, such as notes on the composition of the word, a list of spelling variants, and sub-entries of words related to that headword. Below, three entries are broken down and their component parts are numbered. A key to these numbered parts follows directly below the sample entries.

Key to identification of part of definitions

1 headword Each definition starts with a headword.
2 definition The headword is followed by a definition. If there are multiple senses to a word, they are numbered.
3 notes on morphological composition The component parts of a word may be noted. For example anachi is made up of ana ‘now’ and chi ‘day’.
4 spelling variants Some possible spelling variants are listed.
5 cross-reference from a spelling variant Some spelling variants (sp. var.) are listed in the vocabulary with a cross reference to the main headword.
6 sub-entries Some subentries are listed under headwords. These can also be found as headwords with more information.

A a
=asp. var. of=yaI; me
aca1no, not (negative particle)acuahaca
acuasp. var. ofaca1no, not
alaniitem (used to mark items in a list)
alariniitem (used to mark items in a list)latinialatini
alatinisp. var. ofalariniitem
ana2nowna7yana1anachitoday
anachihisp. var. ofanachitoday
anchisp. var. ofanachitoday
B b
ba-sp. var. ofbe-2causative perfective aspect
balalatisp. var. ofpelalatibody
be-2causative perfective aspectpe-2ba-
be-4reiterative perfective aspect
becogo1altar2seat; throne
becoxillasheep, ewepecoxilla huinisheeppeco2dogxilla6cotton
bela1if
belalatisp. var. ofpelalatibody
bene2mud
benegolasp. var. ofbenigolaold person
benequichasp. var. ofbeniquichasick person
benexiinichildbeni1personxini1child
beni1personbenexiinichildbeni zaZapotec personbeniatipeoplebenigolaold personbenigonawomanbenigotidead personbeniniguiomanbeniquichasick person
beni2do (perfective stem)ronido
beni zaZapotec personbeni1person
beniatipeople, human kindbeni1person
benigolaold personbeni1persongolaold benegola
benigona1woman2wifebeni1persongona1woman, female bennigonaa
benigotidead personbeni1personcoti2die (perfective stem)
benigueche1servant2vassal
beniguichasp. var. ofbeniquichasick person
beniniquiosp. var. ofbeniniguioman
bennigonaasp. var. ofbenigonawoman
benniniguiosp. var. ofbeniniguioman
beosp. var. ofpeomoon, month
besosesp. var. ofbixocefather
bexuanasp. var. ofbejuanalord
beyosp. var. ofpeomoon, month
bezelodevil
bi-1perfective aspectvi-2
bi-2and (used in complex numbers)
bichidry
bichichi1treasure2moneypichichibichichi nagachigoldbichichi nagaosilver
bichichi nagachigoldbichichitreasurena-stative asp.gachi2be yellow, golden
bichinadeerpichina conaox, bull
biga21necklace2ring
biganaservant
bisasp. var. ofbizaborder marker
bitao1great life force, great spirit2God (great spirit)biibreath; spirit or breath; breath of one who is dying (?) air; wind; breeze-taogreat vito
bixocefathertatafatherbixosepisosepixocevixocebixozebesosebixoce copabitaopriestbixozecolagrandfather
bixosesp. var. ofbixocefather
bixozesp. var. ofbixocefather
bixyowitch, sorcerer
bizaborder markervijzabiziapisavizavissaabisa
biziasp. var. ofbizaborder marker
bytanihuipil (a traditional garment)
C c
c-1sp. var. ofqui-irrealis aspect
ca2where (interrogative)
ca5fivega2
cacheseven
caletwentygali
cani11and2but, however
catotwo (B set of numbers)topatwo
cayo2three (B set of numbers)chonathree
cayoaone hundred
cayonasixty
cayoosp. var. ofgayofive
cechacuèsp. var. ofcechacueother
cechacueesp. var. ofcechacueother
çechacueesp. var. ofcechacueother
celi1always2eternal
cetobisp. var. ofsetobianother
Cetobisp. var. ofsetobianother
chaanasp. var. ofchanaSir, Lord
chachobe located separate (neutral aspect)
chacue2somecechacueother
chaga1one (B set of numbers)tobione
chana1Sir2Lady3Lordchonaachaana
chapayoung womanxinichapadaughter
che3sp. var. ofchi2day
chela1and, alsochelaniaandchelaneand
chi2dayche3chy1anachitoday
chi3ten
chi4when
chiba4misery
chichibeapermission
chijba28sp. var. ofrichibabe sitting elevated
china51job, work2position, office
chinisp. var. ofxini1child
chiniosp. var. ofchino3fifteen
chino2thirteen
chino3fifteenchinio
chiquethen
chita1fourteen
chita2bonechitacuerib
chonathreecayo2three (B set of numbers)
chonaasp. var. ofchanaSir, Lord
chy1sp. var. ofchi2day
=cionly, just=cy=xi=zi=si
cianimany, much
cica31thus, like this2likecicani1thus
cicani1thus, like thiscica3thus, like
cicani2but
citobisp. var. ofsetobianother
co-3(perfective aspect)gu-2
cobinew
cobicha1sun2day
coca21be, exist (perfective stem)2be able to, can (perfective stem)racabe, can
cogujsp. var. ofcoquilord, lady
cola=plural imperative
colanasteal (perfective stem)
cona31offering2sacrifice3tithegona2guna
cona4bull, oxpichina conaox, bull
copa1guard
copapitaopriest, confessor, friarbixoce copabitaopriest
coqui1lord2ladycogujquoqui2gogui2
cotagoeat (perfective stem)ragoeat
coti1hit (perfective stem)riquinehit
coti2die, be dead (perfective stem)ratibe deadguela gotideath
çôtieight thousand
cotixepay (perfective stem)riquixepay
cue11side2beside, at the side ofchitacuerib
cue2plot (of land), fieldlayolandquina2sowed landcuique2cuelayooplot of land
cuelayoolot, plot of landcue2plot, fieldlayoland
cuisp. var. ofcue2plot, field
D d
dominisp. var. oftomintomin
E e
ex-sp. var. ofxi-marker on possessed nouns
G g
g-1sp. var. ofqui-irrealis aspect
ga1nine
ga2sp. var. ofca5five
ga-sp. var. ofqui-irrealis aspect
galisp. var. ofcaletwenty
gayofivecayoo
gegosp. var. ofquecoriver
gogui2sp. var. ofcoquilord, lady
golaoldbixozecolagrandfather
gona1female; womanbenigonawoman
gona2sp. var. ofcona3offering, sacrifice
gu-2sp. var. ofco-3perfective aspect
gue-1sp. var. ofhue-2perfect aspect
gue-2sp. var. ofqui-irrealis aspect
gue-3sp. var. ofque-3causative irrealis aspect
gue=sp. var. ofquela=nominalizer
gueche1pueblo; town, villagequeche2guichaoguechelayoworld
guechelayoworldgueche1pueblolayoland
guegosp. var. ofquecoriver
guela gotideathquela=nominalizercoti2die (perfective stem)
guela nachagacommunionquela=nominalizerna-stative asp.richagajoin
guetaodeceasedquecto
gui-sp. var. ofqui-irrealis aspect
guibasp. var. ofquiba2metal
guicha2wool
guichaosp. var. ofgueche1pueblo
guichi1sp. var. ofquichi1paper
guiesp. var. ofquie1rock
guiehuanamirror
gunasp. var. ofcona3offering, sacrifice
H h
ha3Oh! (vocative, before a noun)=hèOh! (vocative)
hacasp. var. ofaca1no, not
hua1question particle
hua-1sp. var. ofhue-2perfect aspect
hua=sp. var. ofhue=perfect aspect
hualachi1homeland2native (to a place) (of a person)
huaneand
hue-21perfect aspect2another (used before numbers, see Cordova Arte 3.2.2.3.4)3reiterative perfect aspectgue-1hua-1
hue=perfect aspect (pre-aspect marker)hua=oa=
huecayescribe
huelacelachipunishment
I i
izasp. var. ofysayear
L l
la1be named
la=1plural imperative
la=2or
=la1and
laachesp. var. oflachalarge flat land
lachaflat land, flat field (perhaps relatively large)pezaalapaplain, flat landlapaplain, flat landlaache
lachelasp. var. oflechelaspouse
lachi1heart2soullachitochestrielilachibelieverolabalachithink, consider
lachitochestlachiheart
laga2wide
lagacasame
lahui2between, among, amidst
lani1party, feast
lani21stomach2inleni
lanicicasimilarly
lao1face2surface3aspect, kind4in front of, before, on, in (body part locative)5to, through, from, by (non-locative prepostion)lo1pizalooeye
lapaplain, flat partpezaalachalarge flat landlachalarge flat land
late1where, place where
late2sp. var. oflati1body
lati1bodylate2pelalatibody
lati2cloth, clothes, clothing
latinisp. var. ofalariniitem
latoyou; your, yours (second person plural free pronoun)=toyou (plural)
laya2sp. var. oflayoland
laya31sacred thing2elegant thing3prayerla2blessingláya2
láya2sp. var. oflaya3sacred thing
layoland, fieldcueyoofieldcue2plot, fieldquina2sowed landyoo1land laya2 layucuelayooplot of landguechelayoworld
layusp. var. oflayoland
lazecloak
leca1fellow, fellow man; neighbor2wife
lechalasp. var. oflechelaspouse
lechela1spouse, wife, husband2consortlochelalachelalichelalechala
lenisp. var. oflani2stomach, in
lesacasp. var. oflisacavalue, cost
lezolength
listraight, truenali2adjadvtrue
lichsp. var. oflichihouse
lichelasp. var. oflechelaspouse
lichihouselichlichiquibajailyoolichihouse
lichiquibajail, prisonlichihousequiba2metal
lisacacost, price; valuelezacalesaca
lo1sp. var. oflaoface
=loyou; your (second person singular bound pronoun)
lochelasp. var. oflechelaspouse
lochitongue
lohui1you (second person singular free pronoun)
LoolahaOaxaca
loxobeard
M m
mani11animal2bird3horsemani peco xillasheepmani pixeowl
=meeit, they; them; their, its, theirs (third person animal bound pronoun)
N n
na3say (perfective stem)
na5I, me, my, mine (first person singular free pronoun)=yaI; me
na7sp. var. ofana2now
na8be
na-stative aspectbichichi nagachingoldguela nachagancommunionnali2truequella naly
=nawe; us; our, ours (first person plural bound pronoun)tona4we
naa3hand
naa6be lying
nabeasp. var. ofnapeaorder
nagacheyellow
nagati1white2clean
nali21true2trulyna-stative asp.listraight, true
nana21know (someone or something), be taught2understand3see
nana3mother
napeaorderrenasaypeameasure, order nabea
naxacasp. var. ofnazacabe good, healthy
naxi21fruit2sweet, good-tasting
nazaca1be good2be healthynaxaca
nesp. var. ofni1who, which, that
=newithchelaneconjand
neewith
nesa1road, path, way2 way towardnezanezayomain road
nesaayoke
nezasp. var. ofnesaroad
nezayolarge road, main road, good road (without rocks)nesaroadyoo1land
ni1who, which, that (relativizer)ne
=ni1he, she, it, they; him, her, them; his, hers, its, their, theirs (third person bound pronoun)
nia1because
nia2foot, hoof
niacanithus
niatini1because2fornjatene
nicasp. var. ofnizawater
niguioman, malebeniniguionman
nique2these, those; this, that
nisa3sp. var. ofnizawater
nitithis
niza1water2spermnisa3nicanizaquierainritopanisabe baptized
njatenesp. var. ofniatinibecause for
=nowe; us; our, ours (first person plural bound pronoun)=ono=tonowetonowe
O o
o-causative aspectu-
oa=sp. var. ofhue=perfect aspect
onipeaunderstand, know
=onosp. var. of=nowe
otisell
P p
pa5tomb
pe-2sp. var. ofbe-2causative perfective aspect
peameasure, ordernapeaorderracapeaknowribepeaorderricapeaorder, confirmrinipeyacommandtichapeaorder, commandment
peco2dogbecoxillasheepmani peco xillasheep
pejuanasp. var. ofbejuanalord
pela4flesh, meat
peo1moon2monthbeyobeo
pereturkey
pichichisp. var. ofbichichitreasure
pichijnia gonasp. var. ofpichina conaox, bull
picotawhipping post
pisasp. var. ofbizaborder marker
pisosesp. var. ofbixocefather
pixocesp. var. ofbixocefather
pizalooeyepizaa3beanlaoface
Q q
q-2sp. var. ofqui-irrealis aspect
que2sp. var. ofcue2plot, field
que3that (previously mentioned)
que-1sp. var. ofqui-irrealis aspect
que-2reiterative irrealis aspect
que-3causative irrealis aspectgue-3
queche2sp. var. ofgueche1pueblo
quechi2thornquichi4gueche guibanailyaga quechithorny tree
quecoriverguegogegoquego
quectosp. var. ofguetaodeceased
quegosp. var. ofquecoriver
quela11night2morning
quela41cornfield2sown field
quela=nominalizergue=guela gotideathguela nachagacommunionquela cahuidarknessquela huexihuisinquela nabanilifequela quichasicknessquella huetogotichaproclamationquella naly
quela cahuidarknessquela=nominalizercahuidark
quela guichaasp. var. ofquela quichasickness
quela huexihuisinquela=nominalizer
quela nabanilifequela=nominalizerribanibe alive quelanabaani
quela quichasickness, illnessquela=nominalizerquicha1sick quela guichaa
quelanibecause
quella huetogotichaproclamationquela=nominalizer
quella nalytruthquela=nominalizernali2true
quete1below2down
queto2squash
quezacaagain
qui-(irrealis aspect)q-2gue-2que-1gui-c-1g-1ga-quitobiall
quiba1tomb
quiba2metalguibagueche guibanaillichiquibajail
quicha1sickbeniquichasick personquela quichasickness
quicha2hair; fur
quichi1paperguichi1
quichi4sp. var. ofquechi2thorn
quie1rock, stoneguienizaquierain
quiebaheaven, glory
quijxi2pay (irrealis stem)riquixepay
quina1box
quina2sowed land, fieldcue2plot, fieldlayoland
quiquie2head
quitabisp. var. ofquitobiall
quitobiall, wholequi-irrealis aspecttobione quitabi quitovi quitopi
quitopisp. var. ofquitobiall
quitovisp. var. ofquitobiall
quoqui2sp. var. ofcoquilord, lady
R r
rabitell, say
raca1be, exist2be able to, cancoca2be (perfective stem)racapeaknow
racapeaknowracabe, canpeameasure, order
racisleep
ragoeatreagochewcotagoeat (perfective stem)
rana11plow2cultivate
rana2see
rapahave
ratibe dead (not perfective)roti1killcoti2die (perfective stem)
re-reiterative habitual aspectte-
reapirise
renasaynapeaorder
renabaask again, demand againrinabaaskrenava
renavasp. var. ofrenabaask again
rithis
ri-habitual aspectti-
ribenigive
ribepeaorder, commandpeameasure, order
ricatake
ricachi1be hidden2be buriedrocachihide
ricapea1order, put in order, ordain2confirmpeameasure, order
richasp. var. ofticha1word
richacasp. var. ofrichagajoin
richagajoin, meettchagarichacarichigaguela nachagacommunion
richiba1be siting elevated; be on (something)2ride a horse3be.plasteredribibasitripesitrochibaput on top of somethingchijba28
richigasp. var. ofrichagajoin
ricireceiveijreceive (irrealis stem)
rietacome, arrive
riloxeend, finish
rinabaaskrenabaask againrinava
rinabeasp. var. ofrinipeyacommand
rinalaoseelaoface
rinavasp. var. ofrinabaask
rini1thistini1
rini2say, speakrinipeyacommand
rinipeyacommand, orderrini2saypeameasure, order rinabea
ripechisingtéchi2
riquicedivide up
riquine1hit, beat2punishcoti1hit (perfective stem)
riquixepayquijxi2pay (irrealis stem)cotixepay (perfective stem)
risaca1suffer2be injuredrosacaharm someone rixacarizaca
risobasp. var. ofrizobabe located
riti1be sitting2exist, be
ritilla1fight, quarrel
ritobiendriaalaoend
ritopanisabe baptized, get baptizedrotobanizabaptizerobabe baptizednizawater
rixacasp. var. ofrisacasuffer
riyelilachisp. var. ofrielilachibelieve
riyelolachisp. var. ofrielilachibelieve
riyo1be contained, be inside, be enclosed2be (located)yòo28sown
rizawalk
rizabi1be floating2be hangingrozabibe obligated
rizacasp. var. ofrisacasuffer
rizalachiconsider, thinkrolabalachithink, considerrozaalachithink, consider
rizanabe leftrozanaleave
rizibuy
rizo1be standing2be uprightçòo22sochiwestsociliaeasttizooxibibe kneelingzocahuisouthzotolanorth
rizoba1be located (sitting, standing, lying)2be placedrisoba
roasp. var. oftohua1mouth, at the edge of
rocachihidericachibe hidden, be buried
rochiba1put (something) on something high; cause something to be up high, cause something to be on something elserichibabe sitting elevated
rocillasave
rolabe half
rolabacount, count uprolabalachithink, consider
rolabalachi1think about, reflect on2consider3conjecturerizalachithink, considerrozaalachithink, considerrolabacountlachiheart
ronaunderstand
ronidobeni2do (perfective stem)runi
ronichigive
ropasp. var. oftopatwo
rotetegivetete2be positioned across
roti2sell
roxihuisin, do wrong
roxine1break2destroy
rozacreate, make
rozaalachiconsider, thinkrolabalachithink, considerrizalachithink, consider
rozabi1be obligated2owerizabifloat
rozalachi2give
rua2sp. var. oftohua1mouth, at the edge of
runisp. var. ofronido
S s
s-1sp. var. ofxi-marker on possessed nouns
s-2sp. var. ofze-definite future aspect
satovisp. var. ofsetobianother
se-sp. var. ofze-definite future aspect
sethobijsp. var. ofsetobianother
setouisp. var. ofsetobianother
setubisp. var. ofsetobianother
setuvijsp. var. ofsetobianother
si-sp. var. ofze-definite future aspect
socahuisp. var. ofzocahuisouth
socaysp. var. ofzocahuisouth
sochiwestrizobe standing suchi
sociliaeastrizobe standing
solarsolar, plot of land for a home
sotiolasp. var. ofzotolanorth
sotolasp. var. ofzotolanorth
suaniSan Jeronimo Tlachochahuaya
suchisp. var. ofsochiwest
sutiulasp. var. ofzotolanorth
sutulasp. var. ofzotolanorth
T t
tafour (B set of numbers)tapa2fourtaa6
taa6sp. var. oftafour (B set of numbers)
tahapetate
tanihill, mountain
-taogreat, bigbitaogreat spirit, godyootoochurch
tapa2fourtafour (B set of numbers)
tatafatherbixocefather
tchagasp. var. ofrichagajoin
te-sp. var. ofre-reiterative habitual aspect
tebelaif
tee1sin
telarloom
testigowitness
=tetevery
texiback, shoulders
ti3sinful, decietful
ti-sp. var. ofri-habitual asp.
=ti11no, not (second element in negative)2up to the point of, up until, at the time of3(what)ever
tia11generation2relative
tiagaeartiyagarozobatiagohear
ticha1wordrichaticha zaaZapotec languagetichapeaorder, commandment
ticha zaaZapotec languageticha1word
tichabeyasp. var. oftichapeaorder, commandment
tichapea1order2commandmentticha1wordpeameasure, order tichabeya tichapea
tichapeasp. var. oftichapeaorder, commandment
tini1sp. var. ofrini1this
tiopasp. var. oftopatwo
tipelaif
tiusp. var. oftiuaforty
tiuafortytiu
tizooxibibe kneelingrizobe standingxijbiknee
to-1causative habitual aspect
=toyou; your, yours (second person plural bound pronoun)latoyou (plural)
toarinisp. var. ofruarini1here
tobamaguey, agave
tobionechaga1one (B set of numbers)touitovituviquitobiallsetobianothertobi tobi
tobi tobievery, each, every onetobione
tohua11mouth2edge3at the edge ofroarua2
tohui1ugly, bad
tola1sin
tomintomindomini
tona1look
tona4we, us, our, ours (first personal plural free pronoun)=nawe
tonilength
tonowe; us; our, ours (first person plural free pronoun)=nowe
=tonowe; us; our, ours (first person plural bound pronoun)=nowe =tonò2
=tonò2sp. var. of=tonowe
topatwocatotwo (B set of numbers)tioparopa
toti1any
touisp. var. oftobione
tovisp. var. oftobione
tuvisp. var. oftobione
U u
u-sp. var. ofo-causative asp.
V v
vi-2sp. var. ofbi-1perfective aspect
vijzasp. var. ofbizaborder marker
vissaasp. var. ofbizaborder marker
vitosp. var. ofbitaogreat spirit, god
vixocesp. var. ofbixocefather
vizasp. var. ofbizaborder marker
X x
x-sp. var. ofxi-marker on possessed nouns
xa2how
=xaemphatic marker
xaba1clothes2cloak, outerwear
xana21buttocks2under, beneath, at the base of
xana3plant
xe-sp. var. ofxi-marker on possessed nouns
xi-of (marker on possessed nouns)xy-x-xe-ex-s-1xina1motherxiteniof, from
=xisp. var. of=cionly
xiba1article2chapter of a book
xichishoulder
xijbikneetizooxibibe kneeling
Xijnijsp. var. ofxini1child
xijtoonion
xilla11mercy2gift, benefit
xilla6cottonbecoxillasheepmani peco xillasheep
xillani1servant2disciple
xina1motherxi-marker on possessed nounsñaa5mother xinia
xiñe2ugliness
xini1childXijnijchinibenexiinichildxinichapadaughterxiniganasonxiniyochisibling-in-law, child-in-law
xiniasp. var. ofxina1mother
xinichapadaughterxini1childchapayoung woman
xiniyochi1sibling-in-law2child-in-lawxini1child
xiteniof, from (possessive)xi-marker on possessed nouns xteni xtini
xitilajewelry, treasure
xoananoble
xoba1corn
xonaxi1lady2Lady (Virgin)
xonoeight
xopasix
xteof
xtenisp. var. ofxiteniof, from
xtinisp. var. ofxiteniof, from
xy-sp. var. ofxi-marker on possessed nouns
xygabaaccount
Y y
y-(irrealis aspect)
ya=no, not (negative adverb)
=yaI; me; my, mine (first person singular bound pronoun)=ana5I
yaca1no, not (negative adverb)
yaca3sp. var. ofyaga1tree, wood
yaga11wood2tree3stick4timberyaca3yaga quechithorny tree yaga quillaalder tree
yaga quechithorny treeyaga1tree, woodquechi2thorn
yaga quiasp. var. ofyaga quillaalder tree
yaga quillaalder treeyaga1tree, wood yaga quia
yalacopal incense
yana1sp. var. ofana2now
yana2corn cob
yanachisp. var. ofanachitoday
yanineck
yobi2sameyopi
yochosp. var. ofyoho1house
yoho1houseyochoyo1yoolichihouseyootoochurch
yoo1land, dirt, earthlayolandcuelayooplot of landguechelayoworldnezayomain road
yoolichsp. var. ofyoolichihouse
yoolichihouseyoho1houselichihouse yoolich
yootoochurchyoho1house-taogreat yuhutto
yopisp. var. ofyobi2same
ysayearizayza
yuhuttosp. var. ofyootoochurch
yzasp. var. ofysayear
Z z
za1grease, fat2wax3candle made of wax or fat
ze-1definite future aspect2another (before quantifiers and numbers)si-se-s-2
zeechacueesp. var. ofcechacueother
zeetoobisp. var. ofsetobianother
zeheear of corn, corn on the cobzeye
zetobisp. var. ofsetobianother
zetoobisp. var. ofsetobianother
zeyesp. var. ofzeheear of corn
=zisp. var. of=cionly
zocahuisouthrizobe standing socahui socay
zotolanorthrizobe standing sotiola sutula sotola sutiula

A a
able to, beraca
above, cause to sitrochiba
againquezaca
agavetoba
alder treeyaga quilla
alsochela1
altarbecogo
alwaysceli
amonglahui2
and (used in complex numbers)bi-2
anothersetobize-
apart, be locatedchacho
arriverieta
articlexiba
ask againrenaba
aspectlao
aspect, causativeo-
aspect, causative habitualto-1
aspect, causative irrealisque-3
aspect, causative perfectivebe-2
aspect, definite futureze-
aspect, habitualri-
aspect, irrealisqui-y-
aspect, perfecthue-2hue=
aspect, perfectivebi-1
aspect, reiterative habitualre-
aspect, reiterative irrealisque-2
aspect, reiterative perfecthue-2
aspect, reiterative perfectivebe-4
aspect, stativena-
at the base ofxana2
at the edge oftohua1
at the side ofcue1
at the time of=ti1
B b
backtexi
be (existential)riti
be (located)riyo
be able toraca
be buriedricachi
be containedriyo
be deadrati
be enclosedriyo
be floatingrizabi
be goodnazaca
be halfrola
be hangingrizabi
be healthynazaca
be hiddenricachi
be injuredrisaca
be insideriyo
be leftrizana
be located (sitting, standing, lying)rizoba
be located separatechacho
be lyingnaa6
be namedla1
be placedrizoba
be sittingriti
be standingrizo
be taughtnana2
be uprightrizo
beardloxo
beforelao
believerielilachi
belowquete
beneathxana2
benefitxilla1
besidecue1
betweenlahui2
big-tao
bonechita2
border markerbiza
breakroxine
breastlachito
brother (of a woman)bizana
brother-in-lawxiniyochi
burial sitepa5quiba1
buttocksxana2
buyrizi
bylao
C c
canraca
candle (made of wax or fat)za
causative aspecto-
causative habitual aspectto-1
causative irrealis aspectque-3
causative perfective aspectbe-2
cause to sit elevatedrochiba
chapter (of a book);xiba
chestlachito
childxini1
child, femalexinichapa
child, malexinigana
child-in-lawxiniyochi
churchyootoo
cleannagati
clothlati2
clotheslati2xaba
clothinglati2
coatxaba
cob, corn on thezehe
comandribepea
comerieta
comitative (with)=nenee
commandrinipeya
commandmenttichapea
communionguela nachaga
comprehendnana2
confessorcopapitao
confirmricapea
conjunction, becausequelani
consortlechela
copalyala
cornxoba1
corn on the cobzehe
corn, ear ofzehe
cornfieldquela4
costlisaca
cottonxilla6
createroza
cultivaterana1
D d
darknessquela cahui
daughter-in-lawxiniyochi
dawnquela1
dead personbenigoti
deceasedguetao
definite future aspectze-
deitybitao
demand againrenaba
demonstrativeque3
devilbezelo
dirtyoo1
disciplexillani
distributeriquice
divide upriquice
downquete
E e
ear of cornzehe
eatrago
edgetohua1
eightxono
elegant thinglaya3
emphatic marker=xa
eternalceli
F f
facelao
farmland (sown field)quela4
fatza
fellow manleca
femalegona1
field, farmlandquela4
field, large flatlacha
fiestalani1
fifteenchino3
finishriloxe
flat field (large)lacha
flat land (large)lacha
flat partlapa
fleshpela4
footnia2
fortytiua
fourtapa2
four (B set of numbers)ta
four hundredela
fourteenchita1
front of, inlao
fruitnaxi2
future aspect, definiteze-
G g
generationtia1
giftxilla1
girlchapa
gloryquieba
go upreapi
good (of a taste)naxi2
good roadnezayo
greaseza
great-tao
great spiritbitao
guardcopa1
H h
habitual aspectri-
habitual aspect, causativeto-1
habitual aspect, reiterativere-
hand (body part)naa3
harrowrana1
haverapa
heartlachi
heavenquieba
her=ni1
hers=ni1
hilltani
him=ni1
his=ni1
holy thinglaya3
homelandhualachi
hoofnia2
howxa2
howevercani1
huipilbytani
human kindbeniati
hundredcayoa
husbandlechela
I i
in front oflao
in that casechique
in the same waylanicica
in this waycica3cicani1
incense of copalyala
in-law, childxiniyochi
in-law, siblingxiniyochi
interrogative, whereca2
irrealis aspectqui-y-
irrealis aspect, causativeque-3
irrealis aspect, reiterativeque-2
it (animal)=mee
item (in a list)alanialarini
its=ni1
its (animal)=mee
J j
jewelryxitila
K k
kindlao
know (someone or something)nana2
L l
Ladychana
Lady (Virgin)xonaxi
land for a homesolar
land, large flatlacha
land, plot ofcuelayoo
land, sowed fieldquina2
language, Zapotecticha zaa
large flat fieldlacha
large flat landlacha
large roadnezayo
laterchique
lengthlezotoni
life forcebitao
like thiscica3cicani1
list itemalanialarini
located, berizoba
looktona1
loomtelar
Lord (Señor)chana
lot (of land)cue2
lot of landcuelayoo
M m
magueytoba
main roadnezayo
makeroza
maleniguio
manyciani
measurepea
meatpela4
mercyxilla1
metalquiba2
mine=ya
mirrorguiehuana
miserychiba4
mistresslechela
monthpeo
moonpeo
morningquela1
mountaintani
mouthtohua1
muchciani
N n
named, bela1
native (to a place) (of a person)hualachi
necklacebiga2
neighborleca
newcobi
next tocue1
nightquela1
ninega1
nominalizerquela=
northzotola
nowana2
O o
OaxacaLoolaha
offeringcona3
officechina5
Oh! (vocative)ha3
oldgola
old personbenigola
onlao
one hundredcayoa
only=ci
ordainricapea
outerwearxaba
P p
paperquichi1
partylani1
peoplebeniati
perfect aspecthue-2hue=
perfect aspect, reiterativehue-2
perfective aspectbi-1
perfective aspect, reiterativebe-4
permissionchichibea
personbeni1
person), native (to a place) (of ahualachi
person, deadbenigoti
person, manniguio
person, oldbenigola
person, sickbeniquicha
person, womangona1
person, young womanchapa
person, Zapotecbeni za
perspective aspect, causativebe-2
petatetaha
piece of landcue2
place wherelate1
placed, berizoba
plainlapa
plantxana3
plot (of land)cue2
plot of landcuelayoo
plot of landsolar
plowrana1
positionchina5
possessrapa
possessed nouns, marker onxi-
possessivexiteni
prayerlaya3
pricelisaca
priestcopapitao
pueblogueche1
punishriquine
punishmenthuelacelachi
put in orderricapea
put, berizoba
Q q
quarrelritilla1
R r
rear endxana2
receiverici
reflect onrolabalachi
reiterative habitual aspectre-
reiterative irrealis aspectque-2
reiterative perfect aspecthue-2
reiterative perfective aspectbe-4
relativetia1
ringbiga2
risereapi
riverqueco
roadnesa
road, good or largenezayo
rockquie1
S s
sacred thinglaya3
sacrificecona3
San Jeronimo Tlachochahuayasuani
scribehuecaye
seatbecogo
separate, be locatedchacho
sevencache
she=ni1
shoulderxichi
shoulderstexi
sibling of the opposite sexbizana
sibling-in-lawxiniyochi
sick personbeniquicha
sicknessquela quicha
sidecue1
side of, at thecue1
similarlylanicica
sinfulti3
sister (of a man)bizana
sister-in-lawxiniyochi
sitriti
sit elevated, cause torochiba
sixxopa
sixtycayona
sleepraci
socercerbixyo
son-in-lawxiniyochi
soullachi
southzocahui
sowed landquina2
sown fieldquela4
speakrini2
spermniza
spiritbitao
spouselechela
squashqueto2
stative aspectna-
stickyaga1
stomachlani2
stonequie1
straightli
sufferrisaca
surfacelao
sweetnaxi2
T t
takerica
tellrabi
tenchi3
thatnique2
that (previously mentioned)que3
that (relativizer)ni1
their=ni1
their (animal)=mee
theirs=ni1
theirs (animal)=mee
them=ni1
them (animal)=mee
thenchique
thesenique2
they=ni1
they (animal)=mee
think aboutrolabalachi
thirteenchino2
thornquechi2
thorny treeyaga quechi
thosenique2
thronebecogo
throughlao
tillrana1
timberyaga1
tithecona3
Tlacochahuaya, San Jeronimosuani
tolao
todayanachi
tomintomin
tonguelochi
treeyaga1
tree, alderyaga quilla
tree, thornyyaga quechi
trulynali2
turkeypere
twentycale
U u
uglytohui1
understandnana2onipearona
up to the point of=ti1
up until=ti1
V v
valuelisaca
very=tete
W w
walkriza
waterniza
waxza
way towardnesa
westsochi
whenchi4
where (interrogative)ca2
where, placelate1
which (relativizer)ni1
whipping postpicota
whitenagati
who (relativizer)ni1
widelaga2
witchbixyo
with=nenee
witnesstestigo
woman, youngchapa
woodyaga1
wordticha1
workchina5
Y y
yearysa
yellownagache
yokenesaa
you (plural)lato
you (plural)=to
young womanchapa
your=lo
your (plural)lato
your (plural)=to
yours (plural)lato
yours (plural)=to
Z z
Zapotec languageticha zaa
Zapotec personbeni za