Dictionary

This Zapotec to English Vocabulary contains over 500 words and morphemes commonly found in the documents and some of their variant spellings. There are two main parts: the main dictionary (Zapotec to English) and the English index to the main dictionary, which can be used to look up a word in the main section.

When headwords are homographs, they are numbered with subscripted numbers after the headword. In this sample the homographic numbering may be surprising as they take into consideration the entire working vocabulary, not just the sample posted here. Please disregard any apparent inconsistencies in the numbering of homographs.

Looking up a headword

If you know what the word might mean, but do not know what the Zapotec word might look like, the index will likely be the most useful place for you to look. Be sure to try looking under synonyms, as well.

If you are trying to figure out what an unidentified Zapotec word might mean, recall that spelling can be quite variable. Here are some tips for finding a Zapotec word in the dictionary:

Abbreviations used in this dictionary

sp. var. spelling variant

The structure of entries

There are two types of entries. Main entries, like anachi and beni below, and cross references for spelling variants, like anachihi below. Cross-references always contain the headword and the cross reference to the main entry. Main entries minimally contain the headword and the definition. They many optionally contain other elements, such as notes on the composition of the word, a list of spelling variants, and sub-entries of words related to that headword. Below, three entries are broken down and their component parts are numbered. A key to these numbered parts follows directly below the sample entries.

Key to identification of part of definitions

1 headword Each definition starts with a headword.
2 definition The headword is followed by a definition. If there are multiple senses to a word, they are numbered.
3 notes on morphological composition The component parts of a word may be noted. For example anachi is made up of ana ‘now’ and chi ‘day’.
4 spelling variants Some possible spelling variants are listed.
5 cross-reference from a spelling variant Some spelling variants (sp. var.) are listed in the vocabulary with a cross reference to the main headword.
6 sub-entries Some subentries are listed under headwords. These can also be found as headwords with more information.

A a
=asp. var. of=yaI; me
aca1no, not (negative particle)acuahacaaca-not
acuasp. var. ofaca1no, not
alaniitem (used to mark items in a list)synalarini 1
alariniitem (used to mark items in a list)synalani 1alatinilatinialar-item
alatinisp. var. ofalariniitem
ana2nowna7yana1naana-nowanachitoday
anachitodayana2nowchi2dayanachihianchiyanachinazhianac-toda
anachihisp. var. ofanachitoday
anchisp. var. ofanachitoday
B b
ba-sp. var. ofbe-2causative perfective aspect
balalatisp. var. ofpelalatibody
be-2causative perfective aspectba-pe-2
be-4reiterative perfective aspect
becogo1altar2seat; thronebcubeco-alta
becoxillasheep, ewepeco2dogxilla6cottonpecoxilla huinisheepzhi'ìillybeco-shee
bejuanalordBesuanabexuanapejuanabeju-lord
bela1iftebelaifbàallbela-if
belalatisp. var. ofpelalatibody
bene2mudFeria 5r 2.3oalica cani yoo cuyaa beniati, chela yagalati yoo nazaca, cani penna yoo cuyaanitruly people were formed from the earth, and not from good earth, but they were formed from mud.synyoo pènnebahnnybene-mud
benegolasp. var. ofbenigolaold person
benequichasp. var. ofbeniquichasick person
benexiinichildbeni1personxini1child
beni1personbùunnybeni-persbenexiinichildbeni zaZapotec personbeniatipeoplebenigolaold personbenigonawomanbenigotidead personbeniniguiomanbeniquichasick person
beni2do (perfective stem)ronido
beni zaZapotec personbeni1personbùunny Dìi'zh Zahbeni-zapo
beniatipeople, human kindbeni1personbeni-peop
Benigichijsp. var. ofbeniquichasick person
benigolaold personbeni1persongolaoldbenegolabanguualbeni-oldp
benigona1woman2wifebeni1persongona1woman, femalebennigonaabeni-woma
benigotidead personbeni1personcoti2die (perfective stem)beni-dead
benigueche1servant2vassal
beniguichasp. var. ofbeniquichasick person
beniniguiomanbeni1personniguiomale, manbeniniquiobenniniguiobùunny nguìu'beni-man
beniniquiosp. var. ofbeniniguioman
bennigonaasp. var. ofbenigonawoman
benniniguiosp. var. ofbeniniguioman
beosp. var. ofpeomoon, month
besosesp. var. ofbixocefather
Besuanasp. var. ofbejuanalord
bexuanasp. var. ofbejuanalord
beyosp. var. ofpeomoon, month
bezelodevilbeze-devi
bi-1perfective aspectvi-2
bi-2and (used in complex numbers)chijnio bij tapaanineteen
bichidrymbihahzbich-dry
bichichi1treasure2moneypichichibich-treabichichi nagachigoldbichichi nagaosilver
bichichi nagachigoldbichichitreasurena-stative asp.bich-gold
bichichi nagaosilverbichichitreasurebich-silv
bichinadeerbzèinybich-deerpichina conaox, bull
biga21necklace2ringbgààa'biga-neck
biganaservant
bisasp. var. ofbizaborder marker
bitanisp. var. ofbytanihuipil
bitao1great life force, great spirit2God (great spirit)-taogreatvito
bixocefatherbesosebixosebixozebyxoocepisosepixocevixocetatafatherbixo-fathbixoce copabitaopriestbixozecolagrandfather
bixosesp. var. ofbixocefather
bixozesp. var. ofbixocefather
bixyowitch, sorcererbzh:yàa bixy-witc
biysaasp. var. ofbizaborder marker
bizaborder markerbisabiysaabiziapisavijzavissaavizabiza-bord
bizanasibling of the opposite sex, sister (of a man), brother (of a woman)bzyaàa'nbiza-sibl
biziasp. var. ofbizaborder marker
bytanihuipil (a traditional garment)bitanibyta-huip
byxoocesp. var. ofbixocefather
C c
c-1sp. var. ofqui-irrealis aspect
ca2where (interrogative)calica-wher
ca5fivega2caa-five
=ca2(emphatic marker)
cachesevengàazcach-seve
caletwentygaligàallycale-twen
cani11and2but, howevercani-and
catotwo (B set of numbers)topatwo
cayo2three (B set of numbers)chonathreecayo-thre
cayoaone hundredgaiyùùa'cayo-oneh
cayonasixtygayòoncayo-sixt
cayoosp. var. ofgayofive
cechacueotherze- 2another(pre-QUANT)chacue2somezeechacuee
celi1always2eternalceli-eter
cetobisp. var. ofsetobianother
chaagaasp. var. ofrichagajoin
chaanasp. var. ofchanaSir, Lord
chachobe located separate (neutral aspect)
chacue2somechac-somecechacueother
chaga1one (B set of numbers)tobionechahchag-onechaga chagaevery one
chaga chagaevery, each, every onechaga1one (B set of numbers)
chana1Sir2Lady3Lordchaanachonaachan-prie
chapayoung womanzhyàa'pchap-younxinichapadaughter
che3sp. var. ofchi2day
chela1and, alsochelaniaandchel-andchelaneand
chi2dayche3chy1zh:ihchi-dayanachitoday
chi3tentsêë'chi-ten
chi4whenchiijchihchi-when
chiba5miserynzhiiby 'scared'chib-mise
chichibeapermission
chiijsp. var. ofchi4when
chijba7sp. var. ofrichibabe sitting elevated
chijnio bij tapaanineteen (fifteen and four)chino3fifteenbi-2and (in complex numbers)tapa2fourtsèi'ny ahbta'pchin-nine
china51job, worksynQuela-huèni-chijna, quela-huèni-ñaani2position, officezèèi'nychin-work
chinisp. var. ofxini1child
chiniosp. var. ofchino3fifteen
chino2thirteentsèe'inychij-thir
chino3fifteenchiniotsèèi'nychin-fiftchijnio bij tapaanineteen
chiquethenchi'cychiq-then
chita1fourteentsëdahchit-four
chita2bonezu'ahtchit-bonechitacuerib
chitacueribchita2bonecue1sidezu'aht cwe' tèe'ixchit-rib
chonathreeona3cayo2three (B set of numbers)chòonnchon-thre
chonaasp. var. ofchanaSir, Lord
chy1sp. var. ofchi2day
=cionly, just=cy=si=xi=zi=ihzy, =izy, =zyci-only
ciani1many, muchzyèinycian-many
cica31thus, like this2likeciìcazi'cycica-thuscicani1thus
cicani1thus, like thiscica3thus, likezi'cy nihcica-like
cicani2but
ciìcasp. var. ofcica3thus, like
cillàa1sp. var. ofrocillasave
citobisp. var. ofsetobianother
co-3(perfective aspect)gu-2
cobinewcweebycobi-new
cobicha1sun2daygobijchaagobychagoobijchagoobychaawbwi'ihzhcobi-sun
coca21be, exist (perfective stem)2be able to, can (perfective stem)racabe, can
cogujsp. var. ofcoquinoble
cola=plural imperativeArte 071 3.1cǒlacǎcatonǒ Let us be!Vellon 119 2.2xinni xtennia, cola colla; cotazeeni loo Bejuanana Dios, niani cocañeeni, guezalaachini xtenni benni guicha rymy children, cry, call to God our Lord to help and have mercy on this sick person
colanasteal (perfective stem)ribanasteal
cona31offering2sacrifice3tithecónigona2gunaguuahnncona-offe
cona4bull, oxgùu'anncona-oxpichina conaox, bull
cónisp. var. ofcona3offering, sacrifice
copa1guard
copa bitoosp. var. ofcopapitaopriest, confessor
copabitaosp. var. ofcopapitaopriest, confessor
copapitaopriest, confessor, friarcopa bitoocopabitaogoPa bittobixoce copabitaopriest
coquinoble; lord, ladycogujgogui2quoqui2
cotagoeat (perfective stem)ragoeat
coti1hit (perfective stem)riquinehit
coti2die, be dead (perfective stem)ratibe deadguela gotideath
çôtieight thousand
cotixepay (perfective stem)riquixepay
cue11side2beside, at the side ofcwe'ehcue-sidechitacuerib
cue2plot (of land), fieldcuique2layolandquina2sowed land
cuelayoolot, plot of landcue2plot, fieldlayoland
cuisp. var. ofcue2plot, field
D d
dominisp. var. oftomintomin
E e
elilaachijsp. var. ofrielilachibelieve
ex-sp. var. ofxi-marker on possessed nouns
G g
g-1sp. var. ofqui-irrealis aspect
G-sp. var. ofqui-irrealis aspect
ga1ninegààa'gaa-nine
ga2sp. var. ofca5five
ga-sp. var. ofqui-irrealis aspect
galisp. var. ofcaletwenty
gayofivecayoogài'gayo-five
gegosp. var. ofquecoriver
gobijchaasp. var. ofcobichasun, day
gobychasp. var. ofcobichasun, day
gogui2sp. var. ofcoquinoble
golaoldgola-oldbixozecolagrandfather
gona1female; womanbenigonawoman
gona2sp. var. ofcona3offering, sacrifice
goobijchasp. var. ofcobichasun, day
goobychaasp. var. ofcobichasun, day
goPa bittosp. var. ofcopapitaopriest, confessor
gu-2sp. var. ofco-3perfective aspect
gue-1sp. var. ofhue-2perfect aspect
gue-2sp. var. ofqui-irrealis aspect
gue-3sp. var. ofque-3causative irrealis aspect
gue=sp. var. ofquela=nominalizer
gueche1pueblo; town, villageguichaoqueche2guee'ihzhguec-puebguechelayoworld
guechelayoworldgueche1pueblolayolandqchelayogax:lyuhguec-worl
gueetasp. var. ofguetaodeceased
guegosp. var. ofquecoriver
guela gotideathquela=nominalizercoti2die (perfective stem)quellagooti
guetaodeceasedgueetaquectogu'tyguet-dece
gui-sp. var. ofqui-irrealis aspect
guibasp. var. ofquiba2metal
guicha2wool
guichaosp. var. ofgueche1pueblo
guichi1sp. var. ofquichi1paper
guiesp. var. ofquie1rock
guiehuanamirrorgyigwàanguie-mirr
gunasp. var. ofcona3offering, sacrifice
H h
ha3Oh! (vocative, before a noun)=hèOh! (vocative)
hacasp. var. ofaca1no, not
hua1question particlehua-ques
hua-1sp. var. ofhue-2perfect aspect
hua=sp. var. ofhue=perfect aspect
huaaneesp. var. ofhuaneand
hualachi1homeland2native (to a place) (of a person)Testamen 3.1pablo primentel peni hualachi pixana hua[niroolaxh lahahzh:hual-home
hualica1true2trulyhue-2perfect aspectlistraight, true=ca2(emphatic marker)oalica
huaneandhuaaneehuan-and
hue-21perfect aspect2another (used before numbers, see Cordova Arte 3.2.2.3.4)3reiterative perfect aspectgue-1hua-1
hue=perfect aspect (pre-aspect marker)hua=oa=
huecayescribe
huelacelachipunishment
I i
izasp. var. ofysayear
J j
L l
la1be namedlaa, lala-name
la=1plural imperative
la=2orla-or
=la1andla-and
laachesp. var. oflachalarge flat land
laaniciicasp. var. oflanicicasimilarly
lachaflat land, flat field (perhaps relatively large)laachepezaaflat fieldlapaplain, flat land
lachelasp. var. oflechelaspouse
lachi1heart2soullààa'zlach-hearlachitochestrielilachibelieverolabalachithink, consider
lachitochestlachiheartlach-ches
laga2widenllàaglaga-wide
lagacasamelàa'glaga-same
lahui2between, among, amidstlàadlahu-betw
lani1party, feastlohnihlani-part
lani21stomachCo721-1 23.1guela nabanij selij lanij guehuij quijebaa nijin life everlasting in the kingdom of heaven2inlenilàa'inylani-stom
lanicicasimilarlylaaniciicalani-simi
lao1face2surface3aspect, kind4in front of, before, on, in (body part locative)5to, through, from, by (non-locative prepostion)lo1lohohlao-facelocuaforeheadpizalooeye
lapaplain, flat partlachalarge flat landlàa'ts lapa-flat
late1where, place wherelateelate-plac
late2sp. var. oflati1body
lateesp. var. oflate1place where
lati1bodylate2laihdylati-bodypelalatibody
lati2cloth, clothes, clothinglaihdylati-clot
latinisp. var. ofalariniitem
latoyou; your, yours (second person plural free pronoun)=toyou (plural)làa'-ahdlato-youp
laya2sp. var. oflayoland
laya31sacred thing2elegant thing3prayerláya2la2blessing
láya2sp. var. oflaya3sacred thing
layoland, fieldyoo1landlaya2layoolayucue2plot, fieldquina2sowed landcueyoofieldlayo-landcuelayooplot of landguechelayoworld
layoosp. var. oflayoland
layusp. var. oflayoland
lazecloak
leçasp. var. oflezafellow person
lechalasp. var. oflechelaspouse
lechela1spouse, wife, husband2consortlachelalechalalichelalochelachìe'lllech-spou
lenisp. var. oflani2stomach, in
lesacasp. var. oflisacavalue, cost
lezawifesynlechèla2 1leçalezaanaleca-neig
lezaanasp. var. oflezafellow person
lezolengthsyntoni
listraight, truedìi'zh dii, dìi'zh tiili-truehualicatrue, truly
lichsp. var. oflichihouse
lichelasp. var. oflechelaspouse
lichihouselichYoolijchliihahzlich-houslichiquibajailyoolichihouse
lichiquibajail, prisonlichihousequiba2metalliahz gyììe'b lich-jail
lisacacost, price; valuelesacalezacasahclisa-pric
Ll ll
L l
lo1sp. var. oflaoface
=loyou; your (second person singular bound pronoun)
lochelasp. var. oflechelaspouse
lochitonguelùuzhloch-tong
locuaforeheadlaofacelohcwah, lahcwahlocu-fore
lohui1you (second person singular free pronoun)lìu'lohu-yous
loolahasp. var. ofLoolahaOaxaca
LoolahaOaxacaloolahaNdùu'ah, Ldùu'ahlola-oaxa
loxobeardlu'ahzh: loxo-bear
M m
mani11animal2bird3horsema'anymani-animmani peco xillasheepmani pixeowl
=meeit, they; them; their, its, theirs (third person animal bound pronoun)
N n
na3say (perfective stem)nnah, nnàana-say
na5I, me, my, mine (first person singular free pronoun)=yaI; menàa'na-i
na7sp. var. ofana2now
na-stative aspectnali2true
=nawe; us; our, ours (first person plural bound pronoun)=Natona4we
=Naunspec. var. of=nawe
naa3handnnaàa'na-hand
naa6be lyingnàa'tna-lyin
naa7motherxina1mother
nabeasp. var. ofnapeaorder
nagacheyellowngaàa'tsnaga-yell
nagati1white2cleanncye'tsnaga-whit
nali21true2trulyna-stative asp.listraight, true
nana21know (someone or something), be taught2understand3seenàannnana-know
nana3mothernnàaannana-moth
napeaorderCo721-5 25.1tebela naabea BeJuananaa dios gatia ___when the Lord God orders that I die.when our Lord be pleased to have me dieFeria 086 1.4...laa loo canî celij pelohui bixocelato xiticha sancta yglesia nitij, ni tenapeani, quitaalij beni Chistianos cagoni sacramẽto... ...and since then the priests have always taught this commandment of the church: which commands that all Christians take communion...Feria 71vb 1.6 tenapea bejoãnana Dios, coni yobilo coçaca yobilo xiteni leçaalo......God commands that you do unto others...Vellon 097-8a 12.1Xinni xtennia, xiñaana Santa Iglesia rennabeeani, quitoobi xeneepe christiano coxoobaxtollani chaaga chaaga yza chy quaresma...My son, our mother the Holy Church commands that all Christians confess each year at Lent.renasaypeameasure, ordernabeanape-orde
naxacasp. var. ofnazacabe good, healthy
naxi21fruit2sweet, good-tastingnaxnaxi-frui
nazaca1be good2be healthynaxacasacaanu'za'cnaza-bego
nesp. var. ofni1who, which, that
=newithne-with
nèchesp. var. ofronichigive
neewith
nesa1road, path, way2 way towardnessanezane'ehznesa-roadnezayomain road
nesaayokenehznesa-yoke
nessasp. var. ofnesaroad
nezasp. var. ofnesaroad
nezayolarge road, main road, good road (without rocks)nesaroadyoo1landnehzyuhneza-good
ni1who, which, that (relativizer)nenih, niini-rel
=ni1he, she, it, they; him, her, them; his, hers, its, their, theirs (third person bound pronoun)
nia1becausenia-becaniatinibecause; forniiaxtennibecause
nia2foot, hoofni'ihnia-foot
niacanithus
niatini1because2fornia1becausenjatene
nicasp. var. ofnizawater
niguioman, malenguiùu'nigi-male
niiaxtennibecausenia1becausexiteniof, from
niitiloosp. var. ofronitilodestroy; forgive (sins)
ñiitiloosp. var. ofronitilodestroy; forgive (sins)
nijtilaosp. var. ofronitilodestroy; forgive (sins)
nique2these, those; this, thatAguero 1 14.1Chela huayaacala huallaabila, quiraa loo niquee?Levanto 22 6.1Laagaaca coroopa Persona rii xtenni Santissima Trinidad, Biitoo nallii, cochaagani quellabenniaati, ninaca pellalaati, huañee anima, ciica tonoo: niquee rinniiona huanacani Biitoo, huañee benniati.niqu-those
nisa3sp. var. ofnizawater
nitithisniti-this
nitiláosp. var. ofronitilodestroy; forgive (sins)
niza1water2spermnicanisa3nnyi'ihsnica-watenizaquierainritopanisabe baptized
nizaquierainnizawaterquie1rocknnyi'sgyihahnica-rain
njatenesp. var. ofniatinibecause; for
=nowe; us; our, ours (first person plural bound pronoun)=tonowetonowe
O o
o-(causative marker)u-rozabibe obligated
oa=sp. var. ofhue=perfect aspect
oalicasp. var. ofhualicatrue, truly
ona3sp. var. ofchonathree
P p
pa5tombbààa'pa-tomb
PasqualaPascuala
pe-2sp. var. ofbe-2causative perfective aspect
peameasure, ordernapeaorderracapeaknowribepeaorderricapeaorder, confirmrinipeyacommandtichapeaorder, commandment
peco2dogbèe'cwpeco-dogbecoxillasheepmani peco xillasheep
pejuanasp. var. ofbejuanalord
pela4flesh, meatbeèe'lpela-fles
pelalarisp. var. ofpelalatibody
pèlla2fishbehll, behlldpela-fish
peo1moon2monthbeobeyobe'èupeo-moon
pereturkeybarxye'ehcpere-turk
pichichisp. var. ofbichichitreasure
pichijnia gonasp. var. ofpichina conaox, bull
picotawhipping post
pisasp. var. ofbizaborder marker
pisosesp. var. ofbixocefather
pixocesp. var. ofbixocefather
pizalooeyelaofacebzilohohpiza-eye
Q q
q-2sp. var. ofqui-irrealis aspect
qchelayosp. var. ofguechelayoworld
que2sp. var. ofcue2plot, field
que3that (previously mentioned)
que-1sp. var. ofqui-irrealis aspect
que-2reiterative irrealis aspect
que-3causative irrealis aspectgue-3
que=NEG
queche2sp. var. ofgueche1pueblo
quechi2thornquichi4guìi'chquec-thorgueche guibanailyaga quechithorny tree
quecorivergegoguegoquegoguèu'quec-rive
quectosp. var. ofguetaodeceased
quegosp. var. ofquecoriver
quela11night2morningguèèe'll 'the middle of the night'quel-nigh
quela41cornfield2sown fieldgue'ehllquel-corn
quela=nominalizergue=guela gotideathquela cahuidarknessquela huexihuisinquela nabanilifequela quichasicknessquelahuechijcompassionquelarieniunderstandingquella huetogotichaproclamationquella naly
quela cahuidarknessquela=nominalizergahll nca'ài quel-dark
quela guichaasp. var. ofquela quichasickness
quela huexihuisinquela=nominalizer
quela nabanilifequela=nominalizerquelanabaanigahll mbàany 'life-giving thing'quel-life
quela quichasickness, illnessquela=nominalizerquicha1sickquela guichaagahll gui'ihihzhquel-sick
quelahuechijpity, compassionquela=nominalizerquellahuechiie
quelanibecause
quelarieni understandingquela=nominalizerrieniunderstandgahll ryeihny 'brain' quel-unde
quella huetogotichaproclamationquela=nominalizer
quella nalytruthquela=nominalizernali2true
quellacooquiikingdom(NOM=lord)
quellagootisp. var. ofguela gotideath
quellahuechiiesp. var. ofquelahuechijcompassion
quete1below2downgue'etquet-down
queto2squashgyehtquet-squa
quezacaagain
qui-(irrealis aspect)c-1g-1G-ga-gue-2gui-q-2que-1quitobiall
quiba1tombquib-tomb
quiba2metalguibagyììe'bquib-metagueche guibanaillichiquibajail
quicha1sickquic-sickbeniquichasick personquela quichasickness
quicha2hair; furgyihchi’ihcyquic-hair
quichi1paperguichi1gyèe'tsquic-pape
quichi4sp. var. ofquechi2thorn
quie1rock, stoneguiegyihahquie-rocknizaquierain
quiebaheavenquiiebaybààa'quie-heav
quiiebasp. var. ofquiebaheaven
quijxi2pay (irrealis stem)riquixepayquiizhquij-pay
quina1boxsyncaxa
quina2sowed land, fieldcue2plot, fieldlayoland
quiquie2headgue'ehcyquiq-head
quitabisp. var. ofquitobiall
quitobiall, wholequi-irrealis aspecttobionequitabiquitovide'ibyquit-all
quitovisp. var. ofquitobiall
quixee3tomorrowquixee quixee
quixee quixeeevery dayquixee3tomorrow
quoqui2sp. var. ofcoquinoble
R r
rabitell, saysyncinñijrabi-tell
raca1be, exist2be able to, cancoca2be (perfective stem)rahcraca-beracapeaknow
racapeaknowracabe, canpeameasure, orderrahcbèe'raca-know
racisleepra’ihsyraci-slee
ragoeatcotagoeat (perfective stem)reagochewra’uhrago-eat
rana11plow2cultivateràa'anrana-plow
rana2seeràannrana-see
rapahaveràa'prapa-have
ratibe dead (not perfective)coti2die (perfective stem)roti1killrahtyrati-bede
re-reiterative habitual aspectte-
reanaremain, be leftrìi'annrean-rema
reapirise
renasaynapeaorder
renabaask again, demand againrenavarinabaask
renavasp. var. ofrenabaask again
rithisrèe'ri-this
ri-habitual aspectti-
ribanastealsynbée-lànacolanasteal (perfective stem)rbaàa'nriba-stea
ribenigiveribe-give
ribepeaorder, commandpeameasure, order
ribezarbèezribe-live
ricatakercaa’ahrica-take
ricachi1be hidden2be buriedrigacharocachihide, bury
ricapea1order, put in order, ordain2confirmpeameasure, order
richasp. var. ofticha1word
richacasp. var. ofrichagajoin
richagajoin, meetchaagaarichacarichigatchaga
richibabe siting elevated; be on (something)chijba7rochibaput on top of somethingribibasitripesit
richigasp. var. ofrichagajoin
ricireceivezij9receive (irrealis stem)
rielilachibelievelachiheartelilaachijriyelilachiriyelolachirinndi'lààa'z, rilldya'lààa'zriel-beli
rieniunderstandquelarieniunderstanding
rietacome, arriverìe’driet-come
rigachasp. var. ofricachibe hidden, be buried
riloxeend, finishrluhahzhrilo-end
rinabaaskrinavarenabaask againrnààa'brina-ask
rinabeasp. var. ofrinipeyacommand
rinalaoseelaofacerinylohrina-see
rinavasp. var. ofrinabaask
rini1thistini1re’nnrini-this
rini2say, speakrnnììi'rni-sayrinipeyacommand
rinipeyacommand, orderrini2saypeameasure, orderrinabearnnahbèe'rini-comm
ripechisingtéchi2
riquicedivide up
riquine1hit, beat2punishcoti1hit (perfective stem)rguìinyriqu-hit
riquixepayquijxi2pay (irrealis stem)cotixepay (perfective stem)rgui'ihzhriqu-pay
risaca1suffer2be injuredrixacarizacarosacaharm someone rzahcrisa-suff
risobasp. var. ofrizobabe located
riti1be sitting2exist, be (existential)Feria 22r 1.2quelani cani tobicica bitoo Dios natijni, yalati quiela, yagala: cani nalij bitoo Dios nabàni‎because but only one God exists, not stone or wood, but truly living God
ritilla1fight, quarrelrdìi'lly, rdìi'illyriti-figh
ritobiendriaalaoendrito-end
ritopanisabe baptized, get baptizedFeria 64v 5.3Cicanilato chicotobaniçato, chicani oalijca cobigañeto, pigabañeto bejoãnana Dios…But when you were baptized, you joined with God...But when you are baptized, you join with God...Feria 87v 5.2Oanana càto xini, oalijca yobi obispo, chela cechacuee copa bito tibezani lichi Dios niateni laya, chijla, quelala, chela teyonninilachi Dios niatenilato, chelañe tapani animas xitenito, tococe te nilato, ti bezaniloo quela huexoba xitolalato, totobaniçani lato, chela tonini cechacuee loo xichiña anima xitenito.Bien veis hijos, que los obispos, y los demas sacerdotes assisten en las yglesias, a celebrar los officios divinos de noche y de dia, y arogar a dios por vosotros, de mas desto tienen cargo de vuestras animas, predican os, #(con?)fiessan os, baptizan os, y sirven os en todas las demas cosas tocan tes ayras almas.nizawaterrotobanizabaptizertyo'pnnyi'ihs, rtu'bnnye'ehsrito-beba
rixacasp. var. ofrisacasuffer
riyelilachisp. var. ofrielilachibelieve
riyelolachisp. var. ofrielilachibelieve
riyo1be contained, be inside, be enclosedCo721-4 25.1noonij arrchijbo xtenij Don Geronimo Crispinit is in the archive of Don Geronimo Crispin2be located3existyòo28sown
rizawalkrzahriza-walk
rizabi1be floating2be hangingrozabibe obligatedrzèè’ibyriza-befl
rizacasp. var. ofrisacasuffer
rizalachiconsider, thinkrolabalachithink, considerunspec. comp. form ofrolabalachirozaalachithink, consider
rizanabe leftrozanaleave
rizibuyrzììi'rizi-buy
rizo1be standing2be uprightçòo22rzuhrizo-stansochiwestsociliaeasttizooxibibe kneelingzocahuisouthzotolanorth
rizoba1be located (sitting, standing, lying)2be placedrisobazùubrizo-belo
rizolobeginFeria 7 3.2Pea tiazi anima lànini, pealoogacanitizijni xiquela nabanini, tizoloolij ticuini. But when the spirit enters in it, then it receives life and begins to move.rzallohohrizo-begi
roasp. var. oftohua1mouth, at the edge of
rocachi1hideConf (18 3.1Quiraa cotyxeleea; aca xyti peccaachia.2buryricachibe hidden, be buriedrcwàa'tsroca-hide
rochiba1put (something) on something high; put (something) up high, put (something) on something elserichibabe sitting elevated
rocillasave; redeemsynrolla2cillàa1ziilla
rolabe halfru'allrola-half
rolabacount, count uprolabalachithink, consider
rolabalachi1think about, reflect on2consider3conjecturerolabacountlachiheartrizalachithink, considerrozaalachithink, consider
ronaunderstand
ronidorunibeni2do (perfective stem)
ronichigivenèchernìi'izhroni-give
ronitilo1damage, destroy2forgive(sins)(w/CAUS)niitilooñiitiloonijtilaonitiláo
ropasp. var. oftopatwo
rotetegivetete2be positioned acrossrdèèi’dyrote-give
roti2sellrtòo'ohroti-sell
roxihuisin, do wrongxihùi
roxine1break2destroy
rozacreate, makeFeria 26h 1.1Alaatij, quelani naquiña tete cozobato xitichani quichibito, cijnachito yobini, niani quela co cannatao xitenito nacani, ni pezaanilato, nitoyánanilato: The fear and reverence that you (pl) have to give for being our father, who created you and maintains you : Oc686-1 28.1yoo ni bezaya lolaa cani re lahui noo lachini[with] the house that I built in Oaxaca, thus it is here in the middle, in the hands ofmy house similarly the house that I made in Oaxaca __ is to remain in the middle [under joint ownership?] and in the hands of
rozaalachiconsider, thinkrizalachithink, considerrolabalachithink, consider
rozabi1be obligated2oweo-causative asp.rizabifloatrizabifloat
rozalachi2give
rua2sp. var. oftohua1mouth, at the edge of
runisp. var. ofronido
S s
s-1sp. var. ofxi-marker on possessed nouns
s-2sp. var. ofze-definite future aspect
sacaasp. var. ofnazacabe good, healthy
SalesSales
satovisp. var. ofsetobianother
se-sp. var. ofze-definite future aspect
sethobijsp. var. ofsetobianother
setouisp. var. ofsetobianother
setubisp. var. ofsetobianother
setuvijsp. var. ofsetobianother
si-sp. var. ofze-definite future aspect
socahuisp. var. ofzocahuisouth
socaysp. var. ofzocahuisouth
sochiwestrizobe standingsuchisaca'àisoch-west
Socijllasp. var. ofsociliaeast
sociliaeastrizobe standingSocijllasasììi'llysoci-east
solarsolar, plot of land for a homesalahrysola-sola
sotiolasp. var. ofzotolanorth
Sotiolasp. var. ofzotolanorth
sotolasp. var. ofzotolanorth
suaniSan Jeronimo TlachochahuayaZuunysuan-tlac
suchisp. var. ofsochiwest
sutiulasp. var. ofzotolanorth
sutulasp. var. ofzotolanorth
T t
tafour (B set of numbers)taa6tapa2fourtaa-four
taa6sp. var. oftafour (B set of numbers)
tahapetatedàa'ahtaha-peta
tanihill, mountaindàanytani-moun
-taogreat, bigbitaogreat spirit, godyootoochurch
tapa2fourtafour (B set of numbers)tahptapa-fourchijnio bij tapaanineteen
tatafatherbixocefatherda'adtata-fath
tchagasp. var. ofrichagajoin
te-sp. var. ofre-reiterative habitual aspect
tebelaifFeria 23v 2.3tebela niatito chicani, loolij cabilla niyeto chicaniif you would have died then, then you would have descended straight to hellbela1if
tee1sinsyntola1xihui3
telarloom
testigowitnesstesti'utest-witn
=tetevery
texiback, shoulders
ti3sinful, decietful
ti-sp. var. ofri-habitual asp.
=ti11no, not (second element in negative)2up to the point of, up until, at the time of3(what)ever
tia11generation2relative
tiagaeartiyagadyahgtiag-earrozobatiagohear
ticha1wordrichadìi'zhtich-wordticha zaaZapotec languagetichapeaorder, commandment
ticha zaaZapotec languageticha1wordDìi’zhsahtich-zapo
tichabeyasp. var. oftichapeaorder, commandment
tichapea1order2commandmentticha1wordpeameasure, ordertichabeyatichapea
tichapeasp. var. oftichapeaorder, commandment
tini1sp. var. ofrini1this
tiopasp. var. oftopatwo
tipelaif
tiusp. var. oftiuaforty
tiuafortytiutyùùa' tiua-fort
tizooxibibe kneelingrizobe standingxijbikneerzuzhihihbytizo-knee
to-1causative habitual aspect
=toyou; your, yours (second person plural bound pronoun)latoyou (plural)
toarinisp. var. ofruarini1here
tobamaguey, agavedùubtoba-magu
tobionetouitovituvichaga1one (B set of numbers)te'ihbytobi-onequitobiallsetobianothertobi tobi
tobi tobievery, each, every onetobione
tohua11mouth2edge3at the edge ofroarua2ru’uhtohu-mout
tohui1ugly, bad
tola1sinsynxihui3tee1
tomintomindomini
tona1look
tona4we, us, our, ours (first personal plural free pronoun)=nawe
tonilengthsynlezo
tonowe; us; our, ours (first person plural free pronoun)=nowe
=tonowe; us; our, ours (first person plural bound pronoun)=nowe=tonò2
=tonò2sp. var. of=tonowe
topatworopatiopacatotwo (B set of numbers)tyo'p topa-two
toti1any
touisp. var. oftobione
tovisp. var. oftobione
tuvisp. var. oftobione
U u
u-sp. var. ofo-causative asp.
V v
vi-2sp. var. ofbi-1perfective aspect
vijzasp. var. ofbizaborder marker
vissaasp. var. ofbizaborder marker
vitosp. var. ofbitaogreat spirit, god
vixocesp. var. ofbixocefather
vizasp. var. ofbizaborder marker
X x
x-sp. var. ofxi-marker on possessed nouns
xa2howx:a, saxa-how
=xaemphatic marker
xaba1clothes2cloak, outerwearx:ahbxaba-clot
xana21buttockssyntaxîche2under, beneath, at the base ofzh:ààa'nxana-butt
xana3plantzh:a'àa'nxana-plan
xe-sp. var. ofxi-marker on possessed nouns
xi-of (marker on possessed nouns)ex-s-1x-xe-xy-xina1motherxiteniof, from
=xisp. var. of=cionly
xiba1article2chapter of a book
xichishoulder
xihui3sinsyntola1tee1xijhuij
xihùisp. var. ofroxihuisin
xijbikneezhi’ihbyxibi-kneetizooxibibe kneeling
xijhuijsp. var. ofxihui3sin
xijtoonionzhihtyxijt-onio
xilla11mercy2gift, benefit
xilla6cottonzhiìi'llyxill-cottbecoxillasheepmani peco xillasheep
xillani1servant2disciple
xina1motherxi-marker on possessed nounsnaa7motherxiniax:nnàaanxina-moth
xiñe2ugliness
xini1childchinizhìi'inyxini-chilbenexiinichild
xiniasp. var. ofxina1mother
xinichapadaughterxini1childchapayoung womanzhìi'iny zhyàa'pxini-daug
xiniganasonxini1childzhìi'iny gaàa'nxini-son
xiniyochi1sibling-in-law2child-in-law
xiteniof, from (possessive)xi-marker on possessed nounsxtenextenixtinix:tèe'nxite-of
xitilajewelry, treasure
xoananoble
xoba1cornzh:u'ubxoba-corn
xonaxi1lady2Lady (Virgin)
xonoeightx:òonxono-eigh
xopasixx:o'pxopa-six
xteofx:tèe'xte-of
xtenesp. var. ofxiteniof, from
xtenisp. var. ofxiteniof, from
xtinisp. var. ofxiteniof, from
xy-sp. var. ofxi-marker on possessed nouns
xygabaaccount
Y y
y-(irrealis aspect)
ya=no, not (negative adverb)
=yaI; me; my, mine (first person singular bound pronoun)=a=a'na5I
yaca1no, not (negative adverb)
yaca3sp. var. ofyaga1tree, wood
yaga11wood; timber2tree3stickyaca3gyahgyaga-wood
yaga quechithorny treeyaga1tree, woodquechi2thornguìi'chùuyaga-thor
yaga quiasp. var. ofyaga quillaalder tree
yalacopal incenseyààa'l, gyààa'lyala-copa
yana1sp. var. ofana2now
yana2corn cob
yanachisp. var. ofanachitoday
yanineckgyehnnyyani-neck
yobi2sameyopi
yochosp. var. ofyoho1house
yoho1houseyo1yochoyu'uhyoho-houyoolichihouseyootoochurch
yoo1land, dirt, earthyuyuhuhyo-landlayolandnezayomain road
yoolichsp. var. ofyoolichihouse
Yoolijchsp. var. oflichihouse
yootoochurchyoho1house-taogreatyuhuttoydòòo'yoot-chur
yopisp. var. ofyobi2same
ysayearizayzaiihahzysa-year
yusp. var. ofyoo1land
yuhuttosp. var. ofyootoochurch
yzasp. var. ofysayear
Z z
za1grease, fat2wax3candle made of wax or fatzahza-grea
ze-1definite future aspect2another (before quantifiers and numbers)cechacueothersetobianothers-2se-si-
zeechacueesp. var. ofcechacueother
zeheear of corn, corn on the cobzeye
zetobisp. var. ofsetobianother
zeyesp. var. ofzeheear of corn
=zisp. var. of=cionly
ziillasp. var. ofrocillasave
zij9receive (irrealis stem)ricireceive
zocahuisouthrizobe standingsocahuisocayzoca-sou

A a
able to, beraca
above, cause to sitrochiba
againquezaca
agavetoba
alder treeyaga quilla
alsochela1
altarbecogo
alwaysceli
amonglahui2
and (used in complex numbers)bi-2
anothersetobize-
apart, be locatedchacho
arriverieta
articlexiba
ask againrenaba
aspectlao
aspect, causativeo-
aspect, causative habitualto-1
aspect, causative irrealisque-3
aspect, causative perfectivebe-2
aspect, definite futureze-
aspect, habitualri-
aspect, irrealisqui-y-
aspect, perfecthue-2hue=
aspect, perfectivebi-1
aspect, reiterative habitualre-
aspect, reiterative irrealisque-2
aspect, reiterative perfecthue-2
aspect, reiterative perfectivebe-4
aspect, stativena-
at the base ofxana2
at the edge oftohua1
at the side ofcue1
at the time of=ti1
B b
backtexi
be (existential)riti
be (located)riyo
be able toraca
be buriedricachi
be containedriyo
be deadrati
be enclosedriyo
be floatingrizabi
be goodnazaca
be halfrola
be hangingrizabi
be healthynazaca
be hiddenricachi
be injuredrisaca
be insideriyo
be leftrizana
be located (sitting, standing, lying)rizoba
be located separatechacho
be lyingnaa6
be namedla1
be placedrizoba
be sittingriti
be standingrizo
be taughtnana2
be uprightrizo
beardloxo
beforelao
believerielilachi
belowquete
beneathxana2
benefitxilla1
besidecue1
betweenlahui2
big-tao
bonechita2
border markerbiza
breakroxine
breastlachito
brother (of a woman)bizana
brother-in-lawxiniyochi
burial sitepa5quiba1
buttocksxana2
buyrizi
bylao
C c
canraca
candle (made of wax or fat)za
causative aspecto-
causative habitual aspectto-1
causative irrealis aspectque-3
causative perfective aspectbe-2
cause to sit elevatedrochiba
chapter (of a book);xiba
chestlachito
childxini1
child, femalexinichapa
child, malexinigana
child-in-lawxiniyochi
churchyootoo
cleannagati
clothlati2
clotheslati2xaba
clothinglati2
coatxaba
cob, corn on thezehe
comandribepea
comerieta
comitative (with)=nenee
commandrinipeya
commandmenttichapea
communionguela nachaga
comprehendnana2
confessorcopapitao
confirmricapea
conjunction, becausequelani
consortlechela
copalyala
cornxoba1
corn on the cobzehe
corn, ear ofzehe
cornfieldquela4
costlisaca
cottonxilla6
createroza
cultivaterana1
D d
darknessquela cahui
daughter-in-lawxiniyochi
dawnquela1
dead personbenigoti
deceasedguetao
definite future aspectze-
deitybitao
demand againrenaba
demonstrativeque3
devilbezelo
dirtyoo1
disciplexillani
distributeriquice
divide upriquice
downquete
E e
ear of cornzehe
eatrago
edgetohua1
eightxono
elegant thinglaya3
emphatic marker=xa
eternalceli
F f
facelao
farmland (sown field)quela4
fatza
fellow manleca
femalegona1
field, farmlandquela4
field, large flatlacha
fiestalani1
fifteenchino3
finishriloxe
flat field (large)lacha
flat land (large)lacha
flat partlapa
fleshpela4
footnia2
fortytiua
fourtapa2
four (B set of numbers)ta
four hundredela
fourteenchita1
front of, inlao
fruitnaxi2
future aspect, definiteze-
G g
generationtia1
giftxilla1
girlchapa
gloryquieba
go upreapi
good (of a taste)naxi2
good roadnezayo
greaseza
great-tao
great spiritbitao
guardcopa1
H h
habitual aspectri-
habitual aspect, causativeto-1
habitual aspect, reiterativere-
hand (body part)naa3
harrowrana1
haverapa
heartlachi
heavenquieba
her=ni1
hers=ni1
hilltani
him=ni1
his=ni1
holy thinglaya3
homelandhualachi
hoofnia2
howxa2
howevercani1
huipilbytani
human kindbeniati
hundredcayoa
husbandlechela
I i
in front oflao
in that casechique
in the same waylanicica
in this waycica3cicani1
incense of copalyala
in-law, childxiniyochi
in-law, siblingxiniyochi
interrogative, whereca2
irrealis aspectqui-y-
irrealis aspect, causativeque-3
irrealis aspect, reiterativeque-2
it (animal)=mee
item (in a list)alanialarini
its=ni1
its (animal)=mee
J j
jewelryxitila
K k
kindlao
know (someone or something)nana2
L l
Ladychana
Lady (Virgin)xonaxi
land for a homesolar
land, large flatlacha
land, plot ofcuelayoo
land, sowed fieldquina2
language, Zapotecticha zaa
large flat fieldlacha
large flat landlacha
large roadnezayo
laterchique
lengthlezotoni
life forcebitao
like thiscica3cicani1
list itemalanialarini
located, berizoba
looktona1
loomtelar
Lord (Señor)chana
lot (of land)cue2
lot of landcuelayoo
M m
magueytoba
main roadnezayo
makeroza
maleniguio
manyciani
measurepea
meatpela4
mercyxilla1
metalquiba2
mine=ya
mirrorguiehuana
miserychiba4
mistresslechela
monthpeo
moonpeo
morningquela1
mountaintani
mouthtohua1
muchciani
N n
named, bela1
native (to a place) (of a person)hualachi
necklacebiga2
neighborleca
newcobi
next tocue1
nightquela1
ninega1
nominalizerquela=
northzotola
nowana2
O o
OaxacaLoolaha
offeringcona3
officechina5
Oh! (vocative)ha3
oldgola
old personbenigola
onlao
one hundredcayoa
only=ci
ordainricapea
outerwearxaba
P p
paperquichi1
partylani1
peoplebeniati
perfect aspecthue-2hue=
perfect aspect, reiterativehue-2
perfective aspectbi-1
perfective aspect, reiterativebe-4
permissionchichibea
personbeni1
person), native (to a place) (of ahualachi
person, deadbenigoti
person, manniguio
person, oldbenigola
person, sickbeniquicha
person, womangona1
person, young womanchapa
person, Zapotecbeni za
perspective aspect, causativebe-2
petatetaha
piece of landcue2
place wherelate1
placed, berizoba
plainlapa
plantxana3
plot (of land)cue2
plot of landcuelayoo
plot of landsolar
plowrana1
positionchina5
possessrapa
possessed nouns, marker onxi-
possessivexiteni
prayerlaya3
pricelisaca
priestcopapitao
pueblogueche1
punishriquine
punishmenthuelacelachi
put in orderricapea
put, berizoba
Q q
quarrelritilla1
R r
rear endxana2
receiverici
reflect onrolabalachi
reiterative habitual aspectre-
reiterative irrealis aspectque-2
reiterative perfect aspecthue-2
reiterative perfective aspectbe-4
relativetia1
ringbiga2
risereapi
riverqueco
roadnesa
road, good or largenezayo
rockquie1
S s
sacred thinglaya3
sacrificecona3
San Jeronimo Tlachochahuayasuani
scribehuecaye
seatbecogo
separate, be locatedchacho
sevencache
she=ni1
shoulderxichi
shoulderstexi
sibling of the opposite sexbizana
sibling-in-lawxiniyochi
sick personbeniquicha
sicknessquela quicha
sidecue1
side of, at thecue1
similarlylanicica
sinfulti3
sister (of a man)bizana
sister-in-lawxiniyochi
sitriti
sit elevated, cause torochiba
sixxopa
sixtycayona
sleepraci
socercerbixyo
son-in-lawxiniyochi
soullachi
southzocahui
sowed landquina2
sown fieldquela4
speakrini2
spermniza
spiritbitao
spouselechela
squashqueto2
stative aspectna-
stickyaga1
stomachlani2
stonequie1
straightli
sufferrisaca
surfacelao
sweetnaxi2
T t
takerica
tellrabi
tenchi3
thatnique2
that (previously mentioned)que3
that (relativizer)ni1
their=ni1
their (animal)=mee
theirs=ni1
theirs (animal)=mee
them=ni1
them (animal)=mee
thenchique
thesenique2
they=ni1
they (animal)=mee
think aboutrolabalachi
thirteenchino2
thornquechi2
thorny treeyaga quechi
thosenique2
thronebecogo
throughlao
tillrana1
timberyaga1
tithecona3
Tlacochahuaya, San Jeronimosuani
tolao
todayanachi
tomintomin
tonguelochi
treeyaga1
tree, alderyaga quilla
tree, thornyyaga quechi
trulynali2
turkeypere
twentycale
U u
uglytohui1
understandnana2onipearona
up to the point of=ti1
up until=ti1
V v
valuelisaca
very=tete
W w
walkriza
waterniza
waxza
way towardnesa
westsochi
whenchi4
where (interrogative)ca2
where, placelate1
which (relativizer)ni1
whipping postpicota
whitenagati
who (relativizer)ni1
widelaga2
witchbixyo
with=nenee
witnesstestigo
woman, youngchapa
woodyaga1
wordticha1
workchina5
Y y
yearysa
yellownagache
yokenesaa
you (plural)lato
you (plural)=to
young womanchapa
your=lo
your (plural)lato
your (plural)=to
yours (plural)lato
yours (plural)=to
Z z
Zapotec languageticha zaa
Zapotec personbeni za