Laa stissima trinidad Dios bixoce Dios xini Dios espiritu Santo ninacani chonna persona tobizica Dios nali Chela Laa nayonna xiteni xonna xi too Santa Maria xinani Amen quieni quirra benni guecheri xiti chiaya sicanaa Manuel dela Cruz nacaya benn[i] huala chi tuari guechee Sans astian nagabaya barrio quiezee rizacaya quelagui hia xipellalatiya laquelacani anna ricaviruya rinni ya ronniya goona Loo quira becogo medioga quizaa becogo Chela rinnia cocachi leeche laya xipella latia missa vigilla Chi Cue Dios xiquela na baania --- Chela rinniya yooholichiya huane solar xitenia quea Chela rinnia napaya tobi cue layoo teche taani quiebichi na Chaga vizaa Miguel ernandes nezaa sosilla sochi nachaga Vizaa layoo Cumun Layoo ni betoo phelipelopis chinio bichonna pesos rianane xinichiapaya Manuela Agustina dela Cruz Chela rinnia napaya cetobi cue layoo gochi nachiaga bizaa Bernabel Luis nezaa sotiola nachiaga bizaa queto ma theolopes nezaa sochi querrola layoo rini riane xini chiapa ya Manuela Agustina de la Cruz ceequerrola rianane sobrino xitenia Salbador de la Cruz – Chela Rinnia Cetobi cue la yoo betoo Miguel hernandes por xonno pesos 8 ps nachaga vizaa layoo xiteni quetoo Balthazar ernandes nezaa soosilla nachaga vizaa layoo xiteni quetoo Mathias Domingo neza soca chiij layoo ri rianane xinichiapaya
The most holy trinity is named God the father, God the child and God the Holy Spirit, who are three persons but only one true God. And [in] the sacred name of the Great Lady Saint Mary, his mother, Amen. All people of this town may know my words: Thus I, Manuel de la Cruz, am native of here, the pueblo San Sebastian; I am counted in the neighborhood Quieze. I have become sick in my body, therefore now I promise that I say that I make an offering to all the altars ? - all the altars. And I say that my spouse will bury my body with mass and vigil when God embraces my life. And I say my house and house plot will remain with my daughter Manuela Augustina de la Cruz. And I say I have one piece of land behind the Quiebichi mountain, that meets Miguel Hernandez’s border marker to the east [and] to the west it meets the border marker of the land of Cumun, which Felipe Lopez sold [for] 18 pesos. It remains with my daughter Manuela Augustina de la Cruz. And I say I have another piece of good land which meets Bernabel Luis’s border marker to the north, [and] meets the border marker of the deceased Mattheo Lopez to the west. Half of this land remains with my daughter Manuela Augustina de la Cruz. Another half remains with my nephew Salvador de la Cruz. And I say another piece of land, which Miguel Hernandes sold for eight pesos, meets the border marker of the deceased Balthazar Hernandez’s land to the east, [and it] meets the border marker of the land of the deceased Mathias Domingo to the south. This land remains with my daughter

1-1. Laa stissima trinidad Dios bixoce Dios xini Dios espiritu2
laa       s[an]tissima   trinidad    Dios   bixoce  Dios   xini    Dios   espiritu
name   most.holy       trinity       God   father   God   child   God   spirit
[In] the name of3 the most holy trinity God the father, God the child and God the Holy Spirit

1-2. Santo ni nacani chonna persona tobizica Dios nali Chela
santo   ni      n-aca=ni      chonna  persona  tobi=zi=ca         Dios  nali4  Chela
holy     REL  STA-be=3s  3            person    1=only=EMPH  God  true    and
who are three persons but only one true God. And


1-3. Laa nayonna xiteni xonna xi too Santa Maria5 xinani Amen
laa      na-yonna      xiteni  xonnaxi  too6   Santa Maria  xi-na=ni                Amen
name  STA-sacred  of        Lady      great  Santa Maria  POSS-mother=3  Amen
[in] the sacred name of the Great Lady Saint Mary, his mother, Amen.


1-4. quieni quirra benni guecheri xiti chiaya sicanaa Manuel
qui-eni       quirra  benni    gueche  ri     xi-tichia=ya         sica   naa        Manuel
IRR-know  all        person  pueblo  this  POSS-word=1s  thus  PRO.1s  Manuel
All people of this town may know my words: Thus I Manuel


1-5. dela Cruz nacaya benn[i]7 huala chi tuari guechee Sans
de la Cruz  n-aca=ya     benni    hualachi  tuari8   guechee   San
de la Cruz  STA-be=1s  person  native      here    pueblo      San
de la Cruz am native of here, the pueblo San


1-6 bastian nagabaya barrio quiezee rizacaya quelagui
sebastian    n-agaba=ya     barrio               quiezee  ri-zaca=ya         quela-gui[chia
Sebastian   STA-count=1s  neighborhood  Quieze   HAB-suffer=1s  NOM-sick
Sebastian I am counted in the neighborhood Quieze. I suffer sickness


1-7 chia xipellalatiya laquelacani anna ricaviruya rinni
xi-pella.lati=ya             laquelacani  anna  ri-caviru=ya9          ri-nni[=ya
POSS-flesh.body=1s  therefore      now    HAB-promise=1s   HAB-say=1s
in my body, therefore now I promise that I say


1-8. ya ronniya goona Loo quira becogo medioga quizaa becogo
r-onni-ya     goona10   loo        quira  becogo  medioga  quizaa  becogo
HAB-do-1s  offering    face/in  all      altar       ?11           all         altar
that I make an offering to all the altars ? - all the altars.


1-9. Chela rinnia cocachi leeche laya xipella latia missa vigilla
chela  ri-nni=a          c-o-cachi                     leechela=ya  xi-pella-lati=a                missa  vigilla
and     HAB-say=1s  IRR-CAUS-be.buried  spouse=1s    POSS-flesh-body=1s   mass   vigil
And I say that my spouse will bury my body with mass and vigil


1-10. Chi Cue Dios xiquela na baania ---
chi      cue             Dios  xi-quela-na-baani=a
when  PERF.take  God  POSS-NOM-STA-be.alive=1s
when God has taken my life.


1-11. Chela rinniya yooholichiya huane solar xitenia quea
chela  ri-nni=ya         yooho-lichi=ya    huane  solar           xiteni=a   que-a[na12=ne
and     HAB-say=1s  house-home=1s  and      house.plot  of=1s      IRR-remain=with
And I say my house and house plot will remain with


1-12. Nane xini chapaya Manuel[a]13 Agustina dela Cruz -----
xini-ch[i]apa=ya  Manuela  Augustina de la Cruz
child-girl=1s        Manuela  Augustina de la Cruz
my daughter Manuela Augustina de la Cruz.


1-13 Chela rinnia napaya tobi cue layoo teche taani quiebichi na
chela   ri-nni=a           n-apa=ya          tobi  cue     layoo  teche             taani        quie-bichi   na-[chaga
and      HAB-say=1s   STA-have=1s   1      piece  land    back/behind  mountain  stone-dry  STA-meet
And I say I have one piece of land behind Quiebichi mountain, that meets


1-14. Chaga vizaa Miguel ernandes nezaa sosilla sochi nachaga
vizaa                Miguel ernandes    nezaa  sosilla14  sochi15  na-chaga
border.marker  Miguel Hernandez  way     east        west       STA-meet
the border marker of Miguel Hernandez to the east [and] to the west meets


1-15. Vizaa layoo Cumun Layoo ni betoo phelipelopis chinio bichonna
vizaa                layoo  Cumun             Layoo  ni      be-too        phelipe  lopis     chinio  bi-chonna
border.marker  land    community?16  land     REL  PERF-sell  Felipe    Lopez  15        and-3 [=18]
the border marker of the land of the community?, land, which Felipe Lopez sold [for] 18


1-16. pesos rianane xinichiapaya Manuela Agustina dela
pesos            ri-ana=ne                               xini-chiapa=ya        Manuela     Agustina     de la    
pesos            HAB/imperf-remain-with        child-girl=1s            Manuela     Augustina     de la            
Pesos, which remains with my daughter Manuela Augustina de la


1-17. Cruz Chela rinnia napaya cetobi cue layoo gochi nachiaga
cruz     Chela    ri-nni=a            n-apa=ya          ce-tobi       cue       layoo  gochi17  na-chiaga
Cruz    and        HAB-say=1s    STA-have=1s   another-1   piece    land    tilled   STA-meet
Cruz. And I say I have nother piece of tilled land (which) meets


1-18. bizaa Bernabel Luis nezaa sotiola nachiaga bizaa queto ma
bizaa                 Bernabel Luis    nezaa    sotiola18  na-chiaga  bizaa                 queto         ma[theo
border.marker   Bernabel Luis    way        north        STA-meet  border.marker   deceased  Mattheo
Bernabel Luis’s border marker to the north, [and] meets the border marker of the deceased Mattheo


1-19. theolopes nezaa sochi querrola layoo rini riane xini chiapa
lopes    nezaa   sochi   querrola  layoo  rini    ri-a=ne                   xini-chiapa[=ya
Lopez   way       west   half          land    this   HAB-remain=with  child-girl=1s
Lopez to the west. Half of this land remains with my daughter

1-20. ya Manuela Agustina de la Cruz ceequerrola rianane sobrino
Manuela Agustina de la Cruz     cee-querrola   ri-ana=ne               sobrino
Manuela Augustina de la Cruz   another-half    HAB-remain=with  nephew
Manuela Augustina de la Cruz. Another half remains with my nephew


1-21. xitenia Salbador de la Cruz – Chela Rinnia Cetobi cue la
xiteni=a   Salbador de la Cruz –    Chela  Ri-nni=a         Ce-tobi      cue     la[yoo
of=1s       Salvador de la Cruz –    and     HAB-say=1s   another-1  piece  land
Salvador de la Cruz. And I say another piece of land,


1-22. yoo betoo Miguel hernandes por xonno pesos 8 ps nachaga
be-too        Miguel  hernandes   por   xonno  pesos    8    p[esos]   na-chaga
PERF-sell  Miguel  Hernandez   for   8          pesos    8    pesos     STA-meet
which Miguel Hernandez sold for eight pesos, meets


1-23. vizaa layoo xiteni quetoo Balthazar ernandes nezaa
vizaa                 layoo  xiteni  quetoo      Balthazar ernandes        nezaa
border.marker   land    of       deceased  Balthazar Hernandez     way
the border marker of the deceased Balthazar Hernandez’s land to


1-24.  soosilla nachaga vizaa layoo xiteni quetoo Mathias
soosilla   na-chaga     vizaa                  layoo  xiteni  quetoo       Mathias
east         STA-meet    border.marker   land     of       deceased  Mathias
the east, which meets the border marker of the land of the deceased Mathias


1-25. Domingo neza soca chiij layoo ri rianane xinichiapaya
Domingo     neza     socachiij19   layoo   ri      ri-ana=ne                xini-chiapa=ya
Domingo     way       south           land    this   HAB-remain=with   child-girl=1s    
Domingo to the south. This land remains with my daughter

 

Footnotes:

2 The following abbreviations are used in this analysis:  1s, first person singular;
3s, third person singular; ASP?, unidentified morpheme associated with aspect;
CAUS, causative; DEF, definite; EMPH, emphatic; HAB, habitual;  IRR, irrealis;
NEG, negation; NOM, nominalizer; PERF, perfective; POSS,  possessive; PRO,
free pronoun; PT, point; REL, relativizer; STA, stative.

3 line 1-1 and line 1-3 are translated the same way despite there being ‘xiteni’
in line 1-3 but not 1-1. We are interpreting ‘laa’ in both to be a possessed noun,
though the difference in syntax between the two lines is not fully understood. 

4 Cordova 423v “verdad grande…nalij téte”

5 “Maria” is written above "Santa," between the second and third lines.

6 Cordova 208 “grande cosa…na-rao”

7 [i] is partially obscured

8 Cordova 35v “aqui…toatij”; Cordova 113v “de aqui…toatij”

9 Cordova 329v “Prometer algo a alguno yterum...ticabitohuaya.”

10 Cordova 288 “Ofrenda lo que se offrece...gona.”

11 The Spanish translation of this line is “hago limosna a todos los Altares de
me dioss.”

12 Cordova 137v: “dexado ser…teana”

13 [a] is obscured by a tear in the page.

14 Cordova 295v “oriente parte do sale el sol...çoocilla”

15 Cordova 286v “occidente la parte occidental...çochee”

16 RAE: común “Todo el pueblo de cualquier ciudad, villa o lugar”;
“Comunidad, generalidad de personas”
(https://dle.rae.es/com%C3%BAn?m=form); Document Tv786 line
23 has a similar construction: “solar xtenij comun”.

17 Cordova 402r: “tierra labrada o barbechada...yoocoche”

18 Cordova 284r “norte la region del norte...çootola”

19 Cordova 266r “meridional la region...çoocahui”

This resource can be cited as follows: / Este recurso puede ser citado de la siguiente manera: Joshua Bayona, Nuria Inez Benitez, Elle Ferreira, Caroline Gihlstorf, Sarah Gold, William Harris-Braun, John Jayasankar, Naomi Kalombo, Hannah Kolzer, Savannah McDonald, Bella Merchant, A. R. Nash, Halle Prince, Laura Rodgers, Gemma Van Nice, Eric Whyman, & Brook Danielle Lillehaugen. 2021. “The Zapotec-language last will and testament of Manuel de la Cruz, 1744 San Sebastian Teitipac, Oaxaca: an interlinear morphological analysis and translation.” Haverford: The Ticha Project (https://ticha.haverford.edu/en/texts/1744-testament-san-sebastian-teitipac/1/original/).