Indigenous Voices in Pedagogical Materials: Zapotec Number Systems and Indigenous Epistemologies

By Xóchitl M. Flores-Marcial, Feb. 25, 2020

xochitl.floresmarcial@csun.edu; @xochizin

 

Ticha: advancing community-engaged digital scholarship, Post 2. This is the second in a series of monthly blog posts by participants in the 2019 ACLS Digital Extension Grant project “Ticha: advancing community-engaged digital scholarship” (PI Lillehaugen) published on GlobalSL and TichaPrevious blog posts in this series: Post 1.

 

Ticha facilitates content which has been contextualized with the input of diverse perspectives including those of the members of the Ticha team, additional Zapotec community members, and students. Together, with funding from ACLS, the Ticha project is creating teaching materials [see last month’s blog], such as the unit on the Zapotec number system which two members of the team introduced in college classrooms over the last several weeks. I brought this content to my History of Mexican Peoples course at California State University, Northridge and Dr. Felipe Lopez introduced it to his Zapotec Culture and Language course at University of California, San Diego. Here I share the power of seeing Zapotec language manuscripts on a digital platform, bringing Indigenous language content to the classroom, and having students engage with the content through discussing Zapotec epistemology in detail.

When we talk about community-engaged scholarship we have to talk about not only including members of a community into the work, but also of including content produced by members of the community. By incorporating digital versions of sixteenth century Zapotec texts in the teaching unit on the Zapotec number system, we amplify Indigenous knowledge and extend the conversation to math, science, architecture, commerce, and the pre-Hispanic calendar system. The manuscripts and the snapshots of colonial life these provide encourage students to think about the long history of Zapotec intellectual culture and to consider ways in which Zapotec number systems were employed in the past and how these numbers exist in the Zapotec languages spoken today. Furthermore, it reminds students to be mindful of the vocabulary that we use to discuss this content and that we must credit the intellectual power of Indigenous Peoples who originally contributed to the production of these texts.

When I presented my History of Mexican Peoples course with the Ticha materials on the Zapotec number system, my class was at the end of the section that focuses on Indigenous intellectual culture in Pre-Hispanic Mesoamerica. Students by this time had seen material evidence such as Mesoamerican monumental architecture, calendar systems and writing systems alongside other monuments of history dating back over 5,000 years when Zapotecs began organizing their societies in the Central Valleys of Oaxaca. I showed them Zapotec numbers as they were recorded in calendrical context circa the first century CE, like those in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Monte Alban stelae 12 and 13 showing Zapotec numbers circa 1st century CE

(Source Wiki Commons)

 

The 40 students in my class understood the context in which Zapotec writing technology developed. But now they had the opportunity to look closely into the Zapotec number system and to engage with Indigenous produced knowledge. For example, in this lesson they are taught the basic building blocks of the Zapotec number system, then asked to analyze larger numbers. Consider the word for 130, xopalallebichij.  Only though understanding what the word means can we fully appreciate the system.  Students learn that we can break the word up in the following way, making the vigesimal (base 20) counting system apparent:

 

xopa-lalle-bi-chij

6-20-and-10

‘six 20s and 10 (more)’ = 130

 

I asked students to consider ways in which Zapotec society applied this epistemology in their monuments of history as well as in their daily social actions, such as counting tortillas. One of the most dynamic parts of this discussion led to the fact that we were talking about a Native society that is not the Aztec or the Maya, societies that are commonly associated with calendar systems and monumental architecture. This part of the discussion was very lively, especially when I encouraged students to look at pre-Hispanic chronology which placed the beginnings of the Zapotec writing system over 2,000 years before that of the Aztec.

2,500 years ago, Zapotec urban planners in concert with architects and religious specialists used complex mathematics to design, organize and construct many buildings that still stand to this day. In my lecture that day, I showed images of Zapotec archaeological sites, focusing on specific buildings such as building J in Monte Alban, Oaxaca. This building was constructed in the first century AD, and served as an astronomical observatory where Zapotec intellectuals recorded the movement of the heavens and developed a rich repertoire of scientific knowledge that was used in other social engagements such as politics, agricultural production, and the recording of history. Many years later, the Zapotec number system was recorded using an alphabet introduced by Europeans in the first half of the sixteenth century, as seen in Figure 2.

Figure 2. Zapotec numbers

(Cordova 1578a: 102r; https://ticha.haverford.edu/en/texts/cordova-arte/208/original/)

 

Today, one of the most gratifying aspects of the Ticha work is that, as a Zapotec scholar, I get to share the intellectual accomplishments of my ancestors with the internet community. As a member of this Native society, I strive to facilitate scholarship on Zapotec studies and relay information that my ancestors recorded over the course of hundreds of years. Throughout my own K-12 education experience I had never felt included in the academic curriculum. Thus, my inspiration for this work was born the very first time I read about Oaxacan history in a college classroom. When I finally saw the history of my ancestors included in an academic conversation, I felt empowered and encouraged to learn more. It was a powerful sentiment that I hope to extend through the teaching modules we are creating.

At the same time, it is an opportunity to remind people that many speakers of Indigenous languages continue to speak their languages in the 21st century. Zapotec is a threatened language and the Ticha team hopes our efforts will increase awareness of the Native language and help people understand that many other Indigenous societies like the Zapotec have a history of complex Intellectual life that we can understand and applaud from our own position in history. We need to hold scholarship accountable for how it has treated Indigenous Peoples’ contributions to the world. This project is a small step in favor of encouraging a heightened understanding of Zapotec language and intellectual culture.


Long awaited beginnings

By Brook Danielle Lillehaugen, Jan. 31, 2020

blilleha@haverford.edu; @blillehaugen

 

Ticha: advancing community-engaged digital scholarship, Post 1. This is the first in a series of monthly blog posts by participants in the 2019 ACLS Digital Extension Grant project “Ticha: advancing community-engaged digital scholarship” (PI Lillehaugen).


Our ACLS grant officially started Dec 31, 2019 and this first month has been full of conversations, writing, outreach, and activity. In reflecting on the energy behind this month, the timeline of this kind of work seems relevant. While we have “just begun”, this is work that has been in motion for several years, as the capacity to undertake this current project developed. This first month’s endeavors represent a long awaited aligning of time and resources. 

The ACLS funding allows our team (including me (a linguist), Zapotec scholars and community members Dr. Xóchitl Flores-Marcial and Dr. Felipe H. Lopez, librarian and digital scholarship expert Dr. Mike Zarafonetis, and undergraduate student Eloise Kadlece) to create teaching modules based on the large historical corpus of manuscripts written in Zapotec during the Mexican Colonial period, and available on Ticha (https://ticha.haverford.edu/; Lillehaugen et al. 2016). This work is done alongside the larger Ticha team.

Zapotec is a family of languages indigenous to Oaxaca, Mexico also spoken by diaspora communities in Mexico and the U.S, especially California.  Zapotec languages belong to the Otomanguean stock and are not related to Spanish, though most Zapotec speakers today also know Spanish. Zapotec has been written for over 2,500 years. Today, there is a large corpus of texts written in Zapotec between 1565 (Oudijk 2008) and the late 1700s. Some of these were created under the auspices of the Catholic Church while others, such as the last will and testament of Sebastiana de Mendoza, shown in Figure 1, were created by Zapotec people for local administrative purposes. (View this text in its entirety on Ticha here and read an English translation of it in Munro et al. 2018.)

Figure 1. The first paragraph of the last will and testament of Sebastiana de Mendoza (1675)

 

Today, many people deny that Zapotec is a real language and that Zapotec was ever written. This absurd claim is consistent with discriminatory and racist ideologies that position Zapotec (and other Native) peoples and language as less than Spanish in repeated and systemic ways. Many Zapotec (and other Native) people publicly resist these false beliefs and are involved in educational activism, including—but certainly not limited to—the three members of the Ticha Zapotec advisory board: Dr. Flores-Marcial (who will be writing next month's blog post), Dr. Lopez, and Maestro Moisés García Guzmán.

Given this sociocultural context, access to the historical corpus of Zapotec language texts is particularly powerful. While a language does not have to be written to count as a language, the fact is that Zapotec has a long written history! Moreover, this corpus attests to a Zapotec history written in Zapotec. Over the next 18 months, we will be working to create publicly available teaching modules targeted for use in high schools and colleges in both the United States and Mexico based on this corpus. We already have two pilot units we built this month that Dr. Felipe H. Lopez will be using in his class “Zapotec Culture: Indigeneity Across Time and Place” at UCSD next week. One of these units introduces students to an element of Zapotec knowledge and science: the base-20 counting system. Another guides students through thinking about language shift and what all might be lost when languages are threatened. Both of these units were designed for first year college students with no previous knowledge about Zapotec language or linguistics. Several other units are already in the works and our list for others is growing. (Do you want to incorporate Zapotec history, culture, and language in your course? Be in touch!)

Since 2013, Ticha has been working to make this corpus publicly available and does so through community based methods, which – as Ortega puts it—are “the backbone of the project” (2019: n.p.). This ACLS funded project also employs community-engaged methods and views them as objects of study and reflection themselves; we explore the intersection of collaborative digital scholarship and community-engaged research. That is one of the goals of this monthly blog. We hope you’ll follow along and join in the conversation via Twitter or Facebook.

 

Ticha: a digital text explorer for Colonial Zapotec

https://ticha.haverford.edu

https://www.facebook.com/TichaProject/

@TichaProject

 

 

Works cited

Lillehaugen, Brook Danielle, George Aaron Broadwell, Michel R. Oudijk, Laurie Allen, May Plumb, and Mike Zarafonetis. 2016. Ticha: a digital text explorer for Colonial Zapotec, first edition. Online: http://ticha.haverford.edu/.

Munro, Pamela, Kevin Terraciano, Michael Galant, Brook Danielle Lillehaugen, Xóchitl Flores-Marcial, Maria Ornelas, Aaron Huey Sonnenschein, & Lisa Sousa. 2018. The Zapotec language testament of Sebastiana de Mendoza, c. 1675. Tlalocan XXIII: 187-211. DOI:  http://dx.doi.org/10.19130/iifl.tlalocan.2018.480.

Ortega, Élika. 2019. Review: TichaReviews in Digital Humanities, 1 (1). https://doi.org/10.21428/3e88f64f.2cb07375.

Oudijk, Michel R. 2008. El texto más antiguo en zapotecaTlalocan 15.227-40. México, D.F.: UNAM.


Ticha: advancing community-engaged digital scholarship - ACLS Digital Extension Grant 2019-2021

By Brook Danielle Lillehaugen, May 15, 2019

In this ACLS-funded project, we explore questions of collaboration in digital scholarship and the intersection of collaborative digital scholarship with community-engaged research. This project leverages an existing project, Ticha, and propels it forward through the creation of publicly available English and Spanish language teaching modules that will be targeted for use in high school and college level courses in both the US and Mexico. This work will be done with an interdisciplinary team including the PI (a linguist), Zapotec activists and scholars, digital scholarship experts, and undergraduate students. The community-engaged methods employed will not only be a means by which a particular digital scholarship project achieves advancement, but will also be objects of study and reflection themselves.

Ticha, a digital text explorer for Colonial Zapotec (https://ticha.haverford.edu), is a digital scholarship project that allows users to access and explore many interlinked layers of texts from a corpus of texts written in the Zapotec language during the Mexican Colonial period. Users can navigate images of the original documents, transcriptions, translations, and linguistic analysis. Ticha seeks to make this corpus of Colonial Zapotec texts accessible to scholars in diverse fields, Zapotec community members, and the general public.

Zapotec is an indigenous language spoken in Oaxaca, Mexico and by diaspora communities in Mexico and the United States, especially California. There is a long history of alphabetic writing in Zapotec language and this corpus of texts are a rich and underutilized resource on Zapotec language, history, culture, and personal heritage. Since 2013, the Ticha Project has been engaged with research on and dissemination of this corpus through the creation and growth of a digital platform for exploring these texts, and in person workshops that both utilize and further annotate these texts in a circular creation of knowledge. The Ticha project is committed to: (i) maintaining a project that is sustainable and innovative; (ii) creating work that engages Zapotec voices at all stages; (iii) ensuring that the archive of colonial texts repeatedly, and in its very design, points to the Zapotec community; and (iv) playing an active role in the larger community of digital scholarship, learning from and providing a model for others interested in community-engaged digital scholarship.

Follow the Ticha Project:

online: https://ticha.haverford.edu

on Twitter: https://twitter.com/TichaProject

on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/TichaProject/

High school or college educators interested in inquiring about collaboration should contact Dr. Lillehaugen at blilleha@haverford.edu