Colonial Valley Zapotec to English Vocabulary

This Vocabulary contains over 600 words and morphemes commonly found in the documents and some of their variant spellings. There are two main parts: the main dictionary (Zapotec to English) and the English index, which can be used to look up a word in the main section.

If you know what the word might mean, but do not know what the Zapotec word might look like, the index will likely be the most useful place for you to look. Be sure to try looking under synonyms, as well.

If you are trying to figure out what an unidentified Zapotec word might mean, recall that spelling can be quite variable. Here are some tips for finding a Zapotec word in the dictionary:

  • Disregard any accent marks. For example, if you are looking for <quéche> try by looking under <queche>.
  • If you don’t find the word spelled exactly as you found it in the text, trying changing the spelling in ways listed below. For example, if you are looking for <aanna> and do not find it there, try looking under <ana>.
    change to
    double consonants single consonants
    double vowels single vowels
    <ij> <i>
  • Disregard any <h> between two identical vowels. For example, if you are looking for <anachihi> and find nothing there, try looking under <anachi>.
  • Keep in mind that the following letter (sequences) may be used interchangeably. If you expect your word to have one of these letters, try replacing it with the one (or ones) in bold, e.g. if you are looking for <veni> you might also look under <peni> and <beni>.
    • p, b, u, v
    • t, d
    • g, gu, c, q, qu
    • s, z, x, c, ç
    • u, o
    • e, i

sp. var. spelling variant

There are two types of entries. Main entries, like anachi and beni below, and cross references for spelling variants, like anachihi below. Cross-references always contain the headword and the cross reference to the main entry. Main entries minimally contain the headword and the definition. They may optionally contain other elements, such as notes on the composition of the word, a list of spelling variants, and sub-entries of words related to that headword. Below, three entries are broken down and their component parts are numbered. A key to these numbered parts follows directly below the sample entries.

1 headword Each definition starts with a headword.
2 definition The headword is followed by a definition. If there are multiple senses to a word, they are numbered.
3 notes on morphological composition The component parts of a word may be noted. For example anachi is made up of ana ‘now’ and chi ‘day’.
4 spelling variants Some possible spelling variants are listed.
5 cross-reference from a spelling variant Some spelling variants (sp. var.) are listed in the vocabulary with a cross reference to the main headword.
6 sub-entry Some subentries are listed under headwords. These can also be found as headwords with more information.
7 example Some entries have examples. The examples are introduced with a reference to the text from which they come, followed by the Zapotec examples in italics and the English translation in quotes.
8 cross-reference Some entries contain cross-references to other entries.
9 modern cognate with audio Some entries contain cognates with audio. Click on the blue play button to hear a native speaker pronounce the cognate in that modern Valley Zapotec variety. Click on the black arrow to jump to that entry in the corresponding Talking Dictionary.

The modern cognates with audio come from four Talking Dictionaries of modern Valley Zapotec languages. These dictionaries are collaborations with native speakers and were made possible by Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages, K. David Harrison, and Jeremy Fahringer. We owe special thanks to Fahringer for enabling the mechanism whereby Ticha can interact with the Talking Dictionaries. The language varieties are listed below with links to the Talking Dictionaries and the names of the contributing speakers.

San Jerónimo Tlacochahuaya Zapotec

http://www.talkingdictionary.org/tlacochahuaya

Speakers: Moisés García Guzmán, Angélica Guzmán Martínez, Antonio García Cruz, María Mercedes Méndez Morales.

San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec

http://www.talkingdictionary.org/sanlucasquiavini

Speakers: Felipe H. Lopez and Victoria Lopez.

Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec

http://www.talkingdictionary.org/teotitlan

Speakers: Camillo Alavéz Alavéz, Gario Angeles, Manuel Bazan Chávez, Froilán Carreño Gutiérrez, Natalia Carreño Hernandez, Janet Chávez Santiago, Federico Chávez Sosa, Elena García Jimenez, Noel Alejandro García Juárez, Silvia González Ruiz, Ambrocio Gutiérrez, Bibiana Gutiérrez, Zenón Pablo Gutiérrez, Erasto Gutiérrez López, Celso Gutiérrez Montaño, Jorge David Hernández Sosa, Edison Hipólito de los Ángeles, Camelia Lazo Chávez, Teresa Martínez Chavez, Adrián Martínez Mendoza, Leonardo Martínez Sosa, Miguel Ángel Mendoza Bautista, Rocío Mendoza Bazán, Manuel de Jesús Mendoza Chávez, Teresa Manuela Mendoza Ruíz, Miros Laba, Cristina Ruiz, Rosa Ruiz González, Francisco Ruiz Gutiérrez, Mariano Sosa Martinez.

Tlacolula de Matamoros Zapotec

http://www.talkingdictionary.org/tlacolula

Speakers: Roberto Antonio Ruiz, and Josefina Antonio Ruiz.

Lillehaugen, Brook Danielle, George Aaron Broadwell, Michel R. Oudijk, Laurie Allen, May Helena Plumb, and Mike Zarafonetis. 2017. "Colonial Valley Zapotec to English Vocabulary." Ticha: a digital text explorer for Colonial Zapotec, first edition. Online: https://ticha.haverford.edu/en/vocabulary

B

ba-sp. var. ofbe-causative perfective aspect
balalatisp. var. ofpelalatibody
be-causative perfective aspectba-pe-
be-reiterative perfective aspect
becogo1altar2seat; thronebeco-alta

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: bcu

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: bcu

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: baku

becoxillasheep, ewepecodogxillacottonpecoxilla huinisheepbeco-shee

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: zhily

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: zhily

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: zhily

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: zhily

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: xhi’ily

bejuanalordBesuanabexuanapejuanabeju-lord

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: bexhuang

belaiftebelaifbela-if

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: bal

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: bel

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: bel

belalatisp. var. ofpelalatibody
benemudFeria 5r 2.3oalica cani yoo cuyaa beniati, chela yagalati yoo nazaca, cani penna yoo cuyaanitruly people were formed from the earth, and not from good earth, but they were formed from mudyoo pènnebene-mud

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: bany

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: banny

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: bany

benegolasp. var. ofbenigolaold person
benequichasp. var. ofbeniquichasick person
benexiinichildbenipersonxinichild
benipersonbeni-persbenexiinichildbeni zaZapotec personbeniatipeoplebenigolaold personbenigonawomanbenigotidead personbeniniguiomanbeniquichasick person

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: buny

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: beny

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: bëny

benido (perfective stem)ronido
beni zaZapotec personbenipersonbeni-zapo

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: buny Dizh Zah

beniatipeople, human kindbenipersonbeni-peop

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: beniit

Benigichijsp. var. ofbeniquichasick person
benigolaold personbenipersongolaoldbenegolabeni-oldp

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: bëngul

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: bangual

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: bengul

benigona1woman2wifebenipersongonawoman, femalebennigonaabeni-woma

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: beny gunà’

benigotidead personbenipersoncotidie (perfective stem)beni-dead
benigueche1servant2vassal
beniguichasp. var. ofbeniquichasick person
beniniguiomanbenipersonniguiomale, manbeniniquiobeni-man

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: nayu

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: buny nguiu

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: beny ngiu

beniniquiosp. var. ofbeniniguioman
bennigonaasp. var. ofbenigonawoman
beosp. var. ofpeomoon, month
besosesp. var. ofbixocefather
Besuanasp. var. ofbejuanalord
bexuanasp. var. ofbejuanalord
beyosp. var. ofpeomoon, month
bezelodevilbeze-devi
bi-perfective aspectvi-
bi-and (used in complex numbers)chijnio bij tapaanineteen
bichidrybich-dry

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: mbiaz

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: biiz

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: nabiz

bichichi1treasure2moneypichichibich-treabichichi nagachigoldbichichi nagaosilver
bichichi nagachigoldbichichitreasurena-stative asp.nagachebe yellowbich-gold
bichichi nagaosilverbichichitreasurebich-silv
bichinadeerbich-deerpichina conaox, bull

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: bzeiny

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: bzeiny

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: bzïin

biga1necklace2ringbiga-neck

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: biga’

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: bigà’a

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: bga

Hear it in Tlacolula de Matamoros Zapotec: wga

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: bga

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: biga’a

biganaservant
bijnijsp. var. ofpinnijseed
bisasp. var. ofbizaborder marker
bitanisp. var. ofbytanihuipil
bitao1great life force, great spirit2God (great spirit)-taogreatvito
bixocefatherbesosebixosebixozebyxoocepisosepixocevixocetatafatherbixo-fathbixoce copabitaopriestbixozecolagrandfather

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: bixus

bixosesp. var. ofbixocefather
bixozesp. var. ofbixocefather
bixyowitch, sorcererbixy-witc

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: bidxa

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: bcha’á

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: bzhya

biysaasp. var. ofbizaborder marker
bizaborder markerbisabiysaabiziapisavijzavissaavizabiza-bord

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: biza

bizanasibling of the opposite sex, sister (of a man), brother (of a woman)biza-sibl

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: bza’an

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: bzyan

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: bizaa’n

biziasp. var. ofbizaborder marker
bytanihuipil (a traditional garment)bitanibyta-huip
byxoocesp. var. ofbixocefather

This dictionary was last updated at Sept. 27, 2017, 7:27 p.m.