Colonial Valley Zapotec to English Vocabulary

This Vocabulary contains over 600 words and morphemes commonly found in the documents and some of their variant spellings. There are two main parts: the main dictionary (Zapotec to English) and the English index, which can be used to look up a word in the main section.

If you know what the word might mean, but do not know what the Zapotec word might look like, the index will likely be the most useful place for you to look. Be sure to try looking under synonyms, as well.

If you are trying to figure out what an unidentified Zapotec word might mean, recall that spelling can be quite variable. Here are some tips for finding a Zapotec word in the dictionary:

  • Disregard any accent marks. For example, if you are looking for <quéche> try by looking under <queche>.
  • If you don’t find the word spelled exactly as you found it in the text, trying changing the spelling in ways listed below. For example, if you are looking for <aanna> and do not find it there, try looking under <ana>.
    change to
    double consonants single consonants
    double vowels single vowels
    <ij> <i>
  • Disregard any <h> between two identical vowels. For example, if you are looking for <anachihi> and find nothing there, try looking under <anachi>.
  • Keep in mind that the following letter (sequences) may be used interchangeably. If you expect your word to have one of these letters, try replacing it with the one (or ones) in bold, e.g. if you are looking for <veni> you might also look under <peni> and <beni>.
    • p, b, u, v
    • t, d
    • g, gu, c, q, qu
    • s, z, x, c, ç
    • u, o
    • e, i

sp. var. spelling variant

There are two types of entries. Main entries, like anachi and beni below, and cross references for spelling variants, like anachihi below. Cross-references always contain the headword and the cross reference to the main entry. Main entries minimally contain the headword and the definition. They may optionally contain other elements, such as notes on the composition of the word, a list of spelling variants, and sub-entries of words related to that headword. Below, three entries are broken down and their component parts are numbered. A key to these numbered parts follows directly below the sample entries.

1 headword Each definition starts with a headword.
2 definition The headword is followed by a definition. If there are multiple senses to a word, they are numbered.
3 notes on morphological composition The component parts of a word may be noted. For example anachi is made up of ana ‘now’ and chi ‘day’.
4 spelling variants Some possible spelling variants are listed.
5 cross-reference from a spelling variant Some spelling variants (sp. var.) are listed in the vocabulary with a cross reference to the main headword.
6 sub-entry Some subentries are listed under headwords. These can also be found as headwords with more information.
7 example Some entries have examples. The examples are introduced with a reference to the text from which they come, followed by the Zapotec examples in italics and the English translation in quotes.
8 cross-reference Some entries contain cross-references to other entries.
9 modern cognate with audio Some entries contain cognates with audio. Click on the blue play button to hear a native speaker pronounce the cognate in that modern Valley Zapotec variety. Click on the black arrow to jump to that entry in the corresponding Talking Dictionary.

The modern cognates with audio come from four Talking Dictionaries of modern Valley Zapotec languages. These dictionaries are collaborations with native speakers and were made possible by Living Tongues Institute for Endangered Languages, K. David Harrison, and Jeremy Fahringer. We owe special thanks to Fahringer for enabling the mechanism whereby Ticha can interact with the Talking Dictionaries. The language varieties are listed below with links to the Talking Dictionaries and the names of the contributing speakers.

San Jerónimo Tlacochahuaya Zapotec

http://www.talkingdictionary.org/tlacochahuaya

Speakers: Moisés García Guzmán, Angélica Guzmán Martínez, Antonio García Cruz, María Mercedes Méndez Morales.

San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec

http://www.talkingdictionary.org/sanlucasquiavini

Speakers: Felipe H. Lopez and Victoria Lopez.

Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec

http://www.talkingdictionary.org/teotitlan

Speakers: Camillo Alavéz Alavéz, Gario Angeles, Manuel Bazan Chávez, Froilán Carreño Gutiérrez, Natalia Carreño Hernandez, Janet Chávez Santiago, Federico Chávez Sosa, Elena García Jimenez, Noel Alejandro García Juárez, Silvia González Ruiz, Ambrocio Gutiérrez, Bibiana Gutiérrez, Zenón Pablo Gutiérrez, Erasto Gutiérrez López, Celso Gutiérrez Montaño, Jorge David Hernández Sosa, Edison Hipólito de los Ángeles, Camelia Lazo Chávez, Teresa Martínez Chavez, Adrián Martínez Mendoza, Leonardo Martínez Sosa, Miguel Ángel Mendoza Bautista, Rocío Mendoza Bazán, Manuel de Jesús Mendoza Chávez, Teresa Manuela Mendoza Ruíz, Miros Laba, Cristina Ruiz, Rosa Ruiz González, Francisco Ruiz Gutiérrez, Mariano Sosa Martinez.

Tlacolula de Matamoros Zapotec

http://www.talkingdictionary.org/tlacolula

Speakers: Roberto Antonio Ruiz, and Josefina Antonio Ruiz.

Lillehaugen, Brook Danielle, George Aaron Broadwell, Michel R. Oudijk, Laurie Allen, May Helena Plumb, and Mike Zarafonetis. 2017. "Colonial Valley Zapotec to English Vocabulary." Ticha: a digital text explorer for Colonial Zapotec, first edition. Online: https://ticha.haverford.edu/en/vocabulary

R

rabitell, saycinñijrabi-tell
raca1be, exist2be able to, cancocabe (perfective stem)raca-beracapeaknow

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rac

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: rac ??

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: rak

racapeaknowracabe, canpeameasure, orderraca-know

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: racbe

racisleepraci-slee

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: rasy

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: raisy

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: rasy

ragoeatcotagoeat (perfective stem)reagochewrago-eat

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rau

rana1plow2cultivaterana-plow

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: ra’án

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: ran

ranaseerana-see

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: ran

rapahaverapa-have

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: rap

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: rap

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rap

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: rap

ratibe dead (not perfective)cotidie (perfective stem)rotikillrati-bede

Hear it in Tlacochahuaya Zapotec: raty

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: raty

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: raty

re-reiterative habitual aspectte-
reanaremain, be leftrean-rema

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rian

reapirise
renasayrenapeaorder
renabaask again, demand againrenavarinabaask
renabeasp. var. ofrenapeaorder
renapeaorder, commandCo721-5 25.1tebela naabea BeJuananaa dios gatiawhen the Lord God orders that I dieFeria 086 1.4laa loo canî celij pelohui bixocelato xiticha sancta yglesia nitij, ni tenapeani, quitaalij beni Chistianos cagoni sacramẽto...and since then the priests have always taught this commandment of the church: which commands that all Christians take communionVellon 097-8a 12.1Xinni xtennia, xiñaana Santa Iglesia rennabeeani, quitoobi xeneepe christiano coxoobaxtollani chaaga chaaga yza chy quaresmaMy son, our mother the Holy Church commands that all Christians confess each year at Lent.renasaypeameasure, orderrenabeanape-orde

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: rinibee

renavasp. var. ofrenabaask again
rithisri-this

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: re

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: re

ri-habitual aspectti-
ribanastealbée-lànacolanasteal (perfective stem)riba-stea

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rban

ribenigiveribe-give
ribepeaorder, commandpeameasure, order
ribezaribe-live

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rbez

ricatakerica-take

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rca

ricachi1be hidden2be buriedrigacharocachihide, bury
ricapea1order, put in order, ordain2confirmpeameasure, order
richasp. var. oftichaword
richacasp. var. ofrichagajoin
richagajoin, meetrichacarichigatchaga
richibabe siting elevated; be on (something)rochibaput on top of somethingribibasitripesit
richigasp. var. ofrichagajoin
ricireceivezijreceive (irrealis stem)
rielilachibelievelachiheartriyelilachiriyelolachiriel-beli

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rindilaz

rieniunderstandquelarieniunderstanding
rietacome, arriveriet-come

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: ried

rigachasp. var. ofricachibe hidden, be buried
riloxeend, finishrilo-end

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rluazh

rinabaaskrinavarenabaask againrina-ask

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rnab

rinabeasp. var. ofrinipeyacommand
rinalaoseelaofacerina-see

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rinylo

rinavasp. var. ofrinabaask
rinithistinirini-this

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: ren

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: ren

rinisay, speakrni-sayrinipeyacommand

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rni

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: rinii

Hear it in Teotitlán del Valle Zapotec: rini

rinipeyacommand, orderrinisaypeameasure, orderrinabearini-comm

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rnabe

ripechisingtéchi
riquicedivide up
riquine1hit, beat2punishcotihit (perfective stem)riqu-hit

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rguiny

riquixepayquijxipay (irrealis stem)cotixepay (perfective stem)riqu-pay

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rguizh

risaca1suffer2be injuredrixacarizacarosacaharm someone risa-suff

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rzac

risobasp. var. ofrizobabe located
riti1be sitting2exist, be (existential)Feria 22r 1.2quelani cani tobicica bitoo Dios natijni, yalati quiela, yagala: cani nalij bitoo Dios nabàni‎because but only one God exists, not stone or wood, but truly living God
ritillafight, quarrelriti-figh

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rdily

ritobiendriaalaoendrito-end
ritopanisabe baptized, get baptizedFeria 64v 5.3Cicanilato chicotobaniçato, chicani oalijca cobigañeto, pigabañeto bejoãnana Dios…But when you were baptized, you joined with God...But when you are baptized, you join with God...Feria 87v 5.2Oanana càto xini, oalijca yobi obispo, chela cechacuee copa bito tibezani lichi Dios niateni laya, chijla, quelala, chela teyonninilachi Dios niatenilato, chelañe tapani animas xitenito, tococe te nilato, ti bezaniloo quela huexoba xitolalato, totobaniçani lato, chela tonini cechacuee loo xichiña anima xitenito.Bien veis hijos, que los obispos, y los demas sacerdotes assisten en las yglesias, a celebrar los officios divinos de noche y de dia, y arogar a dios por vosotros, de mas desto tienen cargo de vuestras animas, predican os, #(con?)fiessan os, baptizan os, y sirven os en todas las demas cosas tocan tes ayras almas.nizawaterrotobanizabaptizerito-beba

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rtyopnyis

rixacasp. var. ofrisacasuffer
riyelilachisp. var. ofrielilachibelieve
riyelolachisp. var. ofrielilachibelieve
riyo1be contained, be inside, be enclosedCo721-4 25.1noonij arrchijbo xtenij Don Geronimo Crispinit is in the archive of Don Geronimo Crispin2be located3existyòosown
rizawalkriza-walk

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rza

rizabi1be floating2be hangingrozabibe obligatedriza-befl

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rzeiby

rizacasp. var. ofrisacasuffer
rizalachiconsider, thinkrolabalachithink, considerunspec. comp. form ofrolabalachirozaalachithink, consider
rizanabe leftrozanaleave
rizibuyrizi-buy

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rzi

rizo1be standing2be uprightçòorizo-stansochiwestsociliaeasttizooxibibe kneelingzocahuisouthzotolanorth

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rzu

rizoba1be located (sitting, standing, lying)2be placedrisobarizo-belo

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: zub

rizolobeginFeria 7 3.2Pea tiazi anima lànini, pealoogacanitizijni xiquela nabanini, tizoloolij ticuini. But when the spirit enters in it, then it receives life and begins to move.rizo-begi

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rzalo

roasp. var. oftohuamouth, at the edge of
rocachi1hideConf (18 3.1Quiraa cotyxeleea; aca xyti peccaachia.2buryricachibe hidden, be buriedroca-hide

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rcwats

rochiba1put (something) on something high; put (something) up high, put (something) on something elserichibabe sitting elevated
rocillasave; redeemrollaroziilla
rolabe halfrola-half

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rual

rolabacount, count uprolabalachithink, consider
rolabalachi1think about, reflect on2consider3conjecturerolabacountlachiheartrizalachithink, considerrozaalachithink, consider
ronaunderstand
ronidorunibenido (perfective stem)
ronichigivenècheroni-give

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rnizh

roñiitiloosp. var. ofronitilodestroy; forgive (sins)
ronijtilaosp. var. ofronitilodestroy; forgive (sins)
ronitiláosp. var. ofronitilodestroy; forgive (sins)
ronitilo1damage, destroy2forgive(sins)(w/CAUS)roñiitilooronijtilaoronitiláo
ropasp. var. oftopatwo
rotetegivetetebe positioned acrossrote-give

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rdeidy

rotisellroti-sell

Hear it in San Lucas Quiaviní Zapotec: rto

roxihuisin, do wrongxihùi
roxine1break2destroy
rozacreate, makeFeria 26h 1.1Alaatij, quelani naquiña tete cozobato xitichani quichibito, cijnachito yobini, niani quela co cannatao xitenito nacani, ni pezaanilato, nitoyánanilato: The fear and reverence that you (pl) have to give for being our father, who created you and maintains you : Oc686-1 28.1yoo ni bezaya lolaa cani re lahui noo lachini[with] the house that I built in Oaxaca, thus it is here in the middle, in the hands ofmy house similarly the house that I made in Oaxaca __ is to remain in the middle [under joint ownership?] and in the hands of
rozaalachiconsider, thinkrizalachithink, considerrolabalachithink, consider
rozabi1be obligated2oweo-causative asp.rizabifloatrizabifloat
rozalachigive
roziillasp. var. ofrocillasave
ruasp. var. oftohuamouth, at the edge of
runisp. var. ofronido

This dictionary was last updated at Sept. 27, 2017, 7:28 p.m.